Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Materials Technologies, Wiley, 2017-10-24)[Article]
Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.
Park, Woojin; Min, Jung-Wook; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(physica status solidi (a), Wiley, 2017-09-07)[Article]
Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is an emerging 2-dimensional (2D) semiconductor for electronic devices. However, unstable and low performance of MoS2 FETs is an important concern. In this study, inserting an atomic layer deposition (ALD) titanium dioxide (TiO2) interfacial layer between contact metal and MoS2 channel is suggested to achieve more stable performances. The reduced threshold voltage (VTH) shift and reduced series resistance (RSD) were simultaneously achieved.
Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Small, Wiley, 2017-02-01)[Article]
A highly manufacturable deep reactive ion etching based process involving a hybrid soft/hard mask process technology shows high aspect ratio complex geometry Lego-like silicon electronics formation enabling free-form (physically flexible, stretchable, and reconfigurable) electronic systems.
In today's digital age, the increasing dependence on information also makes us vulnerable to potential invasion of privacy and cyber security. Consider a scenario in which a hard drive is stolen, lost, or misplaced, which contains secured and valuable information. In such a case, it is important to have the ability to remotely destroy the sensitive part of the device (e.g., memory or processor) if it is not possible to regain it. Many emerging materials and even some traditional materials like silicon, aluminum, zinc oxide, tungsten, and magnesium, which are often used for logic processor and memory, show promise to be gradually dissolved upon exposure of various liquid medium. However, often these wet processes are too slow, fully destructive, and require assistance from the liquid materials and their suitable availability at the time of need. This study shows Joule heating effect induced thermal expansion and stress gradient between thermally expandable advanced polymeric material and flexible bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) to destroy high-performance solid state electronics as needed and under 10 s. This study also shows different stimuli-assisted smartphone-operated remote destructions of such complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics.
Nassar, Joanna M.; Mishra, Kush; Lau, Kirklann; Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Materials Technologies, Wiley, 2017-02-15)[Article]
A wearable health monitor using low-cost and recyclable paper continuously supervises and assesses body vital conditions simultaneously and in real time, such as blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and skin hydration. The affordability and high performance of the integrated “Paper Watch” provide an unprecedented flexible and portable approach for advanced personalized healthcare on the go.
A novel wavy-shaped thin-film-transistor (TFT) architecture, capable of achieving 70% higher drive current per unit chip area when compared with planar conventional TFT architectures, is reported for flexible display application. The transistor, due to its atypical architecture, does not alter the turn-on voltage or the OFF current values, leading to higher performance without compromising static power consumption. The concept behind this architecture is expanding the transistor's width vertically through grooved trenches in a structural layer deposited on a flexible substrate. Operation of zinc oxide (ZnO)-based TFTs is shown down to a bending radius of 5 mm with no degradation in the electrical performance or cracks in the gate stack. Finally, flexible low-power LEDs driven by the respective currents of the novel wavy, and conventional coplanar architectures are demonstrated, where the novel architecture is able to drive the LED at 2 × the output power, 3 versus 1.5 mW, which demonstrates the potential use for ultrahigh resolution displays in an area efficient manner.
Singh, Devendra; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Advanced Materials Technologies, Wiley, 2017-11-24)[Article]
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are interesting energy harvesters of otherwise wasted heat. Here, a polymer-assisted generic process and its mechanics to obtain sputtered thermoelectric (TE) telluride material-based 3D tubular structures with unprecedented length (up to seamless 4 cm and further expandable) are shown. This length allows for large temperature differences between the hot and the cold ends, a critical but untapped enabler for high power generation. Compared with a flat slab, better area efficiency is observed for a rolled tube and compared with a solid rod architecture, a rolled tube uses less material (thus making it lightweight and cost effective) and has competitive performance advantage due to a smaller contact area. It is also shown that a tubular architecture thermopile-based TEG is able to generate up to 5 μW of power (eight pairs of p- and n-type thermopiles) through a temperature difference of 60 °C. The demonstrated process can play an important role in transforming 2D atomic crystal structure TE materials into 3D tubular thermopiles for effective TEG application, which can maintain higher temperature differences by longer distances between hot and cold ends.
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