Transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers have naturally terminated surfaces and can exhibit a near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield in the presence of suitable defect passivation. To date, steady-state monolayer light-emitting devices suffer from Schottky contacts or require complex heterostructures. We demonstrate a transient-mode electroluminescent device based on transition-metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MoS, WS, MoSe, and WSe) to overcome these problems. Electroluminescence from this dopant-free two-terminal device is obtained by applying an AC voltage between the gate and the semiconductor. Notably, the electroluminescence intensity is weakly dependent on the Schottky barrier height or polarity of the contact. We fabricate a monolayer seven-segment display and achieve the first transparent and bright millimeter-scale light-emitting monolayer semiconductor device.
We report for the first time the frequency locking of an extended-cavity quantum-cascade-laser (EC-QCL) to a near-infrared frequency comb. The locked laser source is exploited to carry out molecular spectroscopy around 7.8 μm with a line-centre frequency combined uncertainty of ~63 kHz. The strength of the approach, in view of an accurate retrieval of line centre frequencies over a spectral range as large as 100 cm-1, is demonstrated on the P(40), P(18) and R(31) lines of the fundamental rovibrational band of N2O covering the centre and edges of the P and R branches. The spectrometer has the potential to be straightforwardly extended to other spectral ranges, till 12 μm, which is the current wavelength limit for commercial cw EC-QCLs.
Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.(Applied Nanoscience, Springer Nature, 2012-10-06)[Article]
This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.
Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, 2012-06-27)[Article]
Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state
leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely
low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current
necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here
we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the
desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area
efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable
volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance.
Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which
offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.
Fahad, Hossain M.; Hasan, Md. Mehedi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Li, Guodong(Applied Nanoscience, Springer Nature, 2012-05-22)[Article]
We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated
circuits especially computer microprocessors can be
recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the
circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip
cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative
effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated
with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking
down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also
be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson-
chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by
simulation data followed by experimental verification of
on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated
(otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.
Alamri, Amal M.; Fu, Po-Han; Lai, Kun-Yu; Wang, Hsin-Ping; Li, Lain-Jong; He, Jr-Hau(Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, 2016-06-24)[Article]
An effective light-harvesting scheme for InGaN-based multiple quantum well solar cells is demonstrated using stacking layers of polystyrene nanospheres. Light-harvesting efficiencies on the solar cells covered with varied stacks of nanospheres are evaluated through numerical and experimental methods. The numerical simulation reveals that nanospheres with 3 stacking layers exhibit the most improved optical absorption and haze ratio as compared to those obtained by monolayer nanospheres. The experimental demonstration, agreeing with the theoretical analyses, shows that the application of 3-layer nanospheres improves the conversion efficiency of the solar cell by ~31%.
Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Erqiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jürgen(Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, 2016-06-23)[Article]
Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.
Kutbee, Arwa T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Alamoudi, Kholod; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Diaz, Marlon; Almislem, Amani Saleh Saad; Gumus, Abdurrahman; Diallo, Elhadj; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Khashab, Niveen M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa(npj Flexible Electronics, Springer Nature, 2017-09-25)[Article]
To augment the quality of our life, fully compliant personalized advanced health-care electronic system is pivotal. One of the major requirements to implement such systems is a physically flexible high-performance biocompatible energy storage (battery). However, the status-quo options do not match all of these attributes simultaneously and we also lack in an effective integration strategy to integrate them in complex architecture such as orthodontic domain in human body. Here we show, a physically complaint lithium-ion micro-battery (236 μg) with an unprecedented volumetric energy (the ratio of energy to device geometrical size) of 200 mWh/cm3 after 120 cycles of continuous operation. Our results of 90% viability test confirmed the battery’s biocompatibility. We also show seamless integration of the developed battery in an optoelectronic system embedded in a three-dimensional printed smart dental brace. We foresee the resultant orthodontic system as a personalized advanced health-care application, which could serve in faster bone regeneration and enhanced enamel health-care protection and subsequently reducing the overall health-care cost.
Conventional SO2 scrubbing agents, namely calcium oxide and zeolites, are often used to remove SO2 using a strong or irreversible adsorption-based process. However, adsorbents capable of sensing and selectively capturing this toxic molecule in a reversible manner, with in-depth understanding of structure-property relationships, have been rarely explored. Here we report the selective removal and sensing of SO2 using recently unveiled fluorinated metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Mixed gas adsorption experiments were performed at low concentrations ranging from 250 p.p.m. to 7% of SO2. Direct mixed gas column breakthrough and/or column desorption experiments revealed an unprecedented SO2 affinity for KAUST-7 (NbOFFIVE-1-Ni) and KAUST-8 (AlFFIVE-1-Ni) MOFs. Furthermore, MOF-coated quartz crystal microbalance transducers were used to develop sensors with the ability to detect SO2 at low concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 p.p.m.
Two dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid perovskites (2D perovskites) suffer from not only quantum confinement, but also dielectric confinement, hindering their application perspective in devices involving the conversion of an optical input into current. In this report, we theoretically predict that an extremely low exciton binding energy can be achieved in 2D perovskites by using high dielectric-constant organic components. We demonstrate that in (HOCH2CH2NH3)2PbI4, whose organic material has a high dielectric constant of 37, the dielectric confinement is largely reduced, and the exciton binding energy is 20-times smaller than that in conventional 2D perovskites. As a result, the photo-induced excitons can be thermally dissociated efficiently at room temperature, as clearly indicated from femtosecond transient absorption measurements. In addition, the mobility is largely improved due to the strong screening effect on charge impurities. Such low dielectric-confined 2D perovskites show excellent carrier extraction efficiency, and outstanding humidity resistance compared to conventional 2D perovskites.
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