Zhao, Chao; Alfaraj, Nasir; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Liang, Jian-Wei; Alatawi, Abdullah; Alhamoud, Abdullah; Ebaid, Mohamed; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Progress in Quantum Electronics, Elsevier BV, 2018-08-04)[Article]
Group-III nitrides and their alloys feature direct bandgaps covering a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, making them a promising material system for various applications, such as solid state lighting, chemical/biological sensing, water splitting, medical diagnostics, and communications. In recent years, the growth of strain and defect-free group-III nitride vertical nanowires has exploded as an area of research. These nanowires, grown on various unconventional substrates, such as silicon and different metals, demonstrate potential advantages over their planar counterparts, including wavelength tunability to the near infrared and reduced efficiency droop. The low-profile and low power consumption of such nanowires also make them viable candidates for emerging applications, such as the Internet of things and artificial intelligence. Herein, we present a comprehensive review on the recent achievements made in the field of III-nitride nanowires. We compare and discuss the growth conditions and mechanisms involved in fabricating these structures via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. How the unique optical, electrical, and thermal properties of these nanowires are correlated with their growth conditions on various unconventional substrates is discussed, along with their respective applications, including light-emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, and photoelectrodes. Finally, we detail the remaining obstacles and challenges to fully exploit the potential of III-nitride nanowires for such practical applications.
Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Zhang, Huafan; Priante, Davide; Janjua, Bilal; Zhang, Daliang; Wei, Nini; Alhamoud, Abdullah; Shakfa, M. Khaled; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Nanoscale, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2018)[Article]
P-type doping in wide bandgap and new classes of ultra-wide bandgap materials has long been a scientific and engineering problem. The challenges arise from the large activation energy of dopants and high densities of dislocations in materials. We report here, a significantly enhanced p-type conduction using high-quality AlGaN nanowires. For the first time, the hole concentration in Mg-doped AlGaN nanowires is quantified. The incorporation of Mg into AlGaN was verified by correlation with photoluminescence and Raman measurements. The open-circuit potential measurements further confirmed the p-type conductivity; while Mott-Schottky experiments measured a hole concentration of 1.3×1019 cm-3. These results from photoelectrochemical measurements allow us to design prototype ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) incorporating the AlGaN quantum-disks-in-nanowire and optimized p-type AlGaN contact layer for UV-transparency. The ~335-nm LEDs exhibited a low turn-on voltage of 5 V with a series resistance of 32 Ω, due to the efficient p-type doping of the AlGaN nanowires. The bias-dependent Raman measurements further revealed the negligible self-heating of devices. This study provides an attractive solution to evaluate electrical properties of AlGaN, which is applicable to other wide bandgap nanostructures. Our results are expected to open doors to new applications for wide and ultra-wide bandgap materials.
Prabaswara, Aditya; Min, Jung-Wook; Zhao, Chao; Janjua, Bilal; Zhang, Daliang; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Nanoscale Research Letters, Springer Nature, 2018-02-06)[Article]
Consumer electronics have increasingly relied on ultra-thin glass screen due to its transparency, scalability, and cost. In particular, display technology relies on integrating light-emitting diodes with display panel as a source for backlighting. In this study, we undertook the challenge of integrating light emitters onto amorphous quartz by demonstrating the direct growth and fabrication of a III-nitride nanowire-based light-emitting diode. The proof-of-concept device exhibits a low turn-on voltage of 2.6 V, on an amorphous quartz substrate. We achieved ~ 40% transparency across the visible wavelength while maintaining electrical conductivity by employing a TiN/Ti interlayer on quartz as a translucent conducting layer. The nanowire-on-quartz LED emits a broad linewidth spectrum of light centered at true yellow color (~ 590 nm), an important wavelength bridging the green-gap in solid-state lighting technology, with significantly less strain and dislocations compared to conventional planar quantum well nitride structures. Our endeavor highlighted the feasibility of fabricating III-nitride optoelectronic device on a scalable amorphous substrate through facile growth and fabrication steps. For practical demonstration, we demonstrated tunable correlated color temperature white light, leveraging on the broadly tunable nanowire spectral characteristics across red-amber-yellow color regime.
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