• Aerial Data Aggregation in IoT Networks: Hovering & Traveling Time Dilemma

      Bushnaq, Osama M.; Celik, Abdulkadir; ElSawy, Hesham; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (IEEE, 2018) [Conference Paper]
      The next era of information revolution will rely on aggregating big data from massive numbers of devices that are widely scattered in our environment. The majority of these devices are expected to be of low-complexity, low-cost, and limited power supply, which imposes stringent constraints on the network operation. In this regards, this paper proposes an aerial data aggregation from a finite spatial field via an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Instead of fusing, relaying, and routing the data across the wireless nodes to fixed locations access points, a UAV flies over the field and collects the required data. Particularly, the field is divided into several subregions where the UAV hover over each subregion to collect samples from the underlying nodes. To this end, an optimization problem is formulated and solved to find the optimal number of subregions, the area of each subregion, the hovering locations, the hovering time at each location, and the trajectory between hovering locations such that an average number of samples are collected from the field in minimal time. The proposed the formulation is shown to be np-hard mixed integer problem, and hence, a decoupled heuristic solution is proposed. The results show that there exists an optimal number of subregions that balance the tradeoff between the hovering and traveling times such that the total time for collecting the required samples is minimized.
    • Underwater Wireless Optical Communications Systems: from System-Level Demonstrations to Channel Modeling

      Oubei, Hassan M. (2018-06) [Dissertation]
      Advisor: Ooi, Boon S.
      Committee members: Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Jones, Burton; Ng, Tien Khee; Cheng, Julian
      Approximately, two-thirds of earth's surface is covered by water. There is a growing interest from the military and commercial communities in having, an efficient, secure and high bandwidth underwater wireless communication (UWC) system for tactical underwater applications such as oceanography studies and offshore oil exploration. The existing acoustic and radio frequency (RF) technologies are severely limited in bandwidth because of the strong frequency dependent attenuation of sound in seawater and the high conductivity of seawater at radio frequencies, respectively. Recently, underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) has been proposed as the best alternative or complementary solution to meet this challenge. Taking advantage of the low absorption window of seawater in blue-green (400-550 nm) regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, UWOC is expected to establish secure, efficient and high data rate communication links over short and moderate distances (< 100 m) for versatile applications such as underwater oil pipe inspection, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and sensor networks. UWOC uses the latest gallium nitrite (GaN) visible light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) transmitters. Although some research on LED lased UWOC is being conducted, both the military and academic 5 research communities are favoring the use of laser beams, which potentially could enhance the available bandwidth by up to three orders of magnitude. However, the underwater wireless channel is optically very challenging and difficult to predict. The propagation of laser beams in seawater is significantly affected by the harsh marine environments and suffers from severe attenuation which is a combined effect of absorption and scattering, optical turbulence, and multipath effects at high transmission rates. These limitations distort the intensity and phase structure of the optical beam leading to a decrease in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) which ultimately degrades the performance of UWOC links by increasing the probability of error. In this dissertation, we seek to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of short range (≤ 20 m) UWOC systems over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as to model and describe the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.
    • A New Simple Model for Underwater Wireless Optical Channels in the Presence of Air Bubbles

      Zedini, Emna; Oubei, Hassan M.; Kammoun, Abla; Hamdi, Mounir; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, IEEE, 2018-01-15) [Conference Paper]
      A novel statistical model is proposed to characterize turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles for fresh and salty waters, based on experimental data. In this model, the channel irradiance fluctuations are characterized by the mixture Exponential-Gamma distribution. We use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood parameter estimation of the new model. Interestingly, the proposed model is shown to provide a perfect fit with the measured data under all the channel conditions for both types of water. The major advantage of the new model is that it has a simple mathematical form making it attractive from a performance analysis point of view. Indeed, the application of the Exponential-Gamma model leads to closed-form and analytically tractable expressions for key system performance metrics such as the outage probability and the average bit-error rate.
    • A volume integral equation solver for quantum-corrected transient analysis of scattering from plasmonic nanostructures

      Sayed, Sadeed Bin; Uysal, Ismail Enes; Bagci, Hakan; Ulku, H. Arda (2018 International Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium (ACES), IEEE, 2018-05-24) [Conference Paper]
      Quantum tunneling is observed between two nanostructures that are separated by a sub-nanometer gap. Electrons “jumping” from one structure to another create an additional current path. An auxiliary tunnel is introduced between the two structures as a support for this so that a classical electromagnetic solver can account for the effects of quantum tunneling. The dispersive permittivity of the tunnel is represented by a Drude model, whose parameters are obtained from the electron tunneling probability. The transient scattering from the connected nanostructures (i.e., nanostructures plus auxiliary tunnel) is analyzed using a time domain volume integral equation solver. Numerical results demonstrating the effect of quantum tunneling on the scattered fields are provided.
    • Dynamic Downlink Spectrum Access for D2D-Enabled Heterogeneous Networks

      Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Celik, Abdulkadir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, IEEE, 2018-01-15) [Conference Paper]
      This paper proposes new approaches for underlay device- to-device (D2D) communication in spectrum-shared het- erogeneous cellular networks. It considers devices that share downlink resources and have an enabled D2D feature to improve coverage. The mode of operation classifies devices according to their experienced base station (BS) coverage, potential to be served by BS, ability of BS to meet their quality of service (QoS), and their downlink resources occupancy. The initiation of D2D cooperation is conditioned on proposed provisional access by an active device, wherein its serving BS attempts to meet its QoS using as low number of spectrum channels as possible, while treating remaining channels for feasible D2D cooperation. Detailed formulations for the mode of operation and a proposed D2D path allocation scheme are presented under perfect and imperfect operation scenarios. The developed results are generally applicable for any performance metric and network model.
    • Quantified Hole Concentration in AlGaN Nanowires for High-Performance Ultraviolet Emitters

      Zhao, Chao; Ebaid, Mohamed; Zhang, Huafan; Priante, Davide; Janjua, Bilal; Zhang, Daliang; Wei, Nini; Alhamoud, Abdullah; Shakfa, M. Khaled; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (Nanoscale, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2018-05-29) [Article]
      P-type doping in wide bandgap and new classes of ultra-wide bandgap materials has long been a scientific and engineering problem. The challenges arise from the large activation energy of dopants and high densities of dislocations in materials. We report here, a significantly enhanced p-type conduction using high-quality AlGaN nanowires. For the first time, the hole concentration in Mg-doped AlGaN nanowires is quantified. The incorporation of Mg into AlGaN was verified by correlation with photoluminescence and Raman measurements. The open-circuit potential measurements further confirmed the p-type conductivity; while Mott-Schottky experiments measured a hole concentration of 1.3×1019 cm-3. These results from photoelectrochemical measurements allow us to design prototype ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) incorporating the AlGaN quantum-disks-in-nanowire and optimized p-type AlGaN contact layer for UV-transparency. The ~335-nm LEDs exhibited a low turn-on voltage of 5 V with a series resistance of 32 Ω, due to the efficient p-type doping of the AlGaN nanowires. The bias-dependent Raman measurements further revealed the negligible self-heating of devices. This study provides an attractive solution to evaluate electrical properties of AlGaN, which is applicable to other wide bandgap nanostructures. Our results are expected to open doors to new applications for wide and ultra-wide bandgap materials.
    • Flexible InGaN nanowire membranes for enhanced solar water splitting

      Elafandy, Rami T.; Elafandy, Rami T.; Min, Jung-Wook; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-05-30) [Article]
      III-Nitride nanowires (NWs) have recently emerged as potential photoelectrodes for efficient solar hydrogen generation. While InGaN NWs epitaxy over silicon is required for high crystalline quality and economic production, it leads to the formation of the notorious silicon nitride insulating interface as well as low electrical conductivity which both impede excess charge carrier dynamics and overall device performance. We tackle this issue by developing, for the first time, a substrate-free InGaN NWs membrane photoanodes, through liftoff and transfer techniques, where excess charge carriers are efficiently extracted from the InGaN NWs through a proper ohmic contact formed with a high electrical conductivity metal stack membrane. As a result, compared to conventional InGaN NWs on silicon, the fabricated free-standing flexible membranes showed a 10-fold increase in the generated photocurrent as well as a 0.8 V cathodic shift in the onset potential. Through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, accompanied with TEM-based analysis, we further demonstrated the detailed enhancement within excess charge carrier dynamics of the photoanode membranes. This novel configuration in photoelectrodes demonstrates a novel pathway for enhancing the performance of III-nitrides photoelectrodes to accelerate their commercialization for solar water splitting.
    • Hydrothermal synthesis of p-type nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates for high response and low concentration hydrogen gas sensor application

      Nakate, Umesh T.; Lee, Gun Hee; Ahmad, Rafiq; Patil, Pramila; Bhopate, Dhanaji P.; Hahn, Y.B.; Yu, Y.T.; Suh, Eun-kyung (Ceramics International, Elsevier BV, 2018-05-30) [Article]
      High quality nanocrystalline NiO nanoplates were synthesized using surfactant and template free hydrothermal route. The gas sensing properties of NiO nanoplates were investigated. The nanoplates morphology of NiO with average thickness ~20 nm and diameter ~100 nm has been confirmed by FE-SEM and TEM. Crystalline quality of NiO has been studied using HRTEM and SAED techniques. Structural properties and elemental compositions have been analysed by XRD and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) respectively. The detailed investigation of structural parameters has been carried out. The optical properties of NiO were analyzed from UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectra. NiO nanoplates have good selectivity towards hydrogen (H2) gas. The lowest H2 response of 3% was observed at 2 ppm, whereas 90% response was noted for 100 ppm at optimized temperature of 200 °C with response time 180 s. The H2 responses as functions of different operating temperature as well as gas concentrations have been studied along with sensor stability. The hydrogen sensing mechanism was also elucidated.
    • Biosensor for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes: emerging trends

      Soni, Dharmendra Kumar; Ahmad, Rafiq; Dubey, Suresh Kumar (Critical Reviews in Microbiology, Informa UK Limited, 2018-05-23) [Article]
      The early detection of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) and understanding the disease burden is of paramount interest. The failure to detect pathogenic bacteria in the food industry may have terrible consequences, and poses deleterious effects on human health. Therefore, integration of methods to detect and trace the route of pathogens along the entire food supply network might facilitate elucidation of the main contamination sources. Recent research interest has been oriented towards the development of rapid and affordable pathogen detection tools/techniques. An innovative and new approach like biosensors has been quite promising in revealing the foodborne pathogens. In spite of the existing knowledge, advanced research is still needed to substantiate the expeditious nature and sensitivity of biosensors for rapid and in situ analysis of foodborne pathogens. This review summarizes recent developments in optical, piezoelectric, cell-based, and electrochemical biosensors for Listeria sp. detection in clinical diagnostics, food analysis, and environmental monitoring, and also lists their drawbacks and advantages.
    • Over-Sampling Codebook-Based Hybrid Minimum Sum-Mean-Square-Error Precoding for Millimeter-Wave 3D-MIMO

      Mao, Jiening; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018-05-23) [Article]
      Abstract: Hybrid precoding design is challenging for millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive MIMO. Most prior hybrid precoding schemes are designed to maximize the sum spectral efficiency (SSE), while seldom investigate the bit-error-rate (BER). Therefore, this letter designs an over-sampling codebook (OSC)-based hybrid minimum sum-mean-square-error (min-SMSE) precoding to optimize the BER. Specifically, given the effective baseband channel consisting of the real channel and analog precoding, we first design the digital precoder/combiner based on min-SMSE criterion to optimize the BER. To further reduce the SMSE between the transmit and receive signals, we propose an OSC-based joint analog precoder/combiner (JAPC) design. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve the better performance than its conventional counterparts.
    • Terahertz communication: The opportunities of wireless technology beyond 5G

      Elayan, Hadeel; Amin, Osama; Shubair, Raed M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (2018 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet), IEEE, 2018-05-17) [Conference Paper]
      Over the past years, carrier frequencies used for wireless communications have been increasing to meet bandwidth requirements. The engineering community witnessed the development of wide radio bands such as the millimeter-wave (mmW) frequencies to fulfill the explosive growth of mobile data demand and pave the way towards 5G networks. Other research interests have been steered towards optical wireless communication to allow higher data rates, improve physical security and avoid electromagnetic interference. Nevertheless, a paradigm change in the electromagnetic wireless world has been witnessed with the exploitation of the Terahertz (THz) frequency band (0.1–10 THz). With the dawn of THz technology, which fills the gap between radio and optical frequency ranges, ultimate promise is expected for the next generation of wireless networks. In this paper, the light is shed on a number of opportunities associated with the deployment of the THz wireless links. These opportunities offer a plethora of applications to meet the future communication requirements and satisfy the ever increasing user demand of higher data rates.
    • Joint Load Balancing and Power Allocation for Hybrid VLC/RF Networks

      Obeed, Mohanad; Salhab, Anas M.; Zummo, Salam A.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, IEEE, 2018-01-15) [Conference Paper]
      In this paper, we propose and study a new joint load balancing (LB) and power allocation (PA) scheme for a hybrid visible light communication (VLC) and radio frequency (RF) system consisting of one RF\access point (AP) and multiple VLC\APs. An iterative algorithm is proposed to distribute the users on the APs and distribute the powers of these APs on their users. In PA subproblem, an optimization problem is formulated to allocate the power of each AP to the connected users for the total achievable data rates maximization. It is proved that the PA optimization problem is concave but not easy to tackle. Therefore, we provide a new algorithm to obtain the optimal dual variables after formulating them in terms of each other. Then, the users that are connected to the overloaded APs and receive less data rates start seeking for other APs that offer higher data rates. Users with lower data rates continue re-connecting from AP to other to balance the load only if this travel increases the summation of the achievable data rates and enhances the system fairness. The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms improve the system capacity and system fairness with fast convergence.
    • A Game-theoretical Approach for Distributed Cooperative Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

      Lu, Yimeng (2018-05) [Thesis]
      Advisor: Shamma, Jeff S.
      Committee members: Ghanem, Bernard; Jones, Burton
      This thesis explores a game-theoretical approach for underwater environmental monitoring applications. We first apply game-theoretical algorithm to multi-agent resource coverage problem in drifting environments. Furthermore, existing utility design and learning process of the algorithm are modified to fit specific constraints of underwater exploration/monitoring tasks. The revised approach can take the real scenario of underwater monitoring applications such as the effect of sea current, previous knowledge of the resource and occasional communications between agents into account, and adapt to them to reach better performance. As the motivation of this thesis is from real applications, in this work we emphasize highly on implementation phase. A ROS-Gazebo simulation environment was created for preparation of actual tests. The algorithms are implemented in simulating both the dynamics of vehicles and the environment. After that, a multi-agent underwater autonomous robotic system was developed for hardware test in real settings with local controllers to make their own decisions. These systems are used for testing above mentioned algorithms and future development of other underwater projects. After that, other works related to robotics during this thesis will be briefly mentioned, including contributions in MBZIRC robotics competition and distributed control of UAVs in an adversarial environment.
    • Ti/TaN Bilayer for Efficient Injection and Reliable AlGaN Nanowires LEDs

      Priante, Davide; Janjua, Bilal; Prabaswara, Aditya; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Elafandy, Rami T.; Lopatin, Sergei; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Zhao, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA, 2018-05-07) [Conference Paper]
      Reliable operation of UV AlGaN-based nanowires-LED at high injection current was realized by incorporating a Ti-pre-orienting/TaN-diffusion-barrier bilayer, thus enhancing external quantum efficiency, and resolving the existing device degradation issue in group-III-nanowires-on-silicon devices.
    • Plasmonic Nanowires for Wide Wavelength Range Molecular Sensing

      Marinaro, Giovanni; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Allione, Marco; Torre, Bruno; Candeloro, Patrizio; Kosel, Jürgen; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M. (Materials, MDPI AG, 2018-05-17) [Article]
      In this paper, we propose the use of a standing nanowires array, constituted by plasmonic active gold wires grown on iron disks, and partially immersed in a supporting alumina matrix, for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy applications. The galvanic process was used to fabricate nanowires in pores of anodized alumina template, making this device cost-effective. This fabrication method allows for the selection of size, diameter, and spatial arrangement of nanowires. The proposed device, thanks to a detailed design analysis, demonstrates a broadband plasmonic enhancement effect useful for many standard excitation wavelengths in the visible and NIR. The trigonal pores arrangement gives an efficiency weakly dependent on polarization. The devices, tested with 633 and 830 nm laser lines, show a significant Raman enhancement factor, up to around 6 × 10⁴, with respect to the flat gold surface, used as a reference for the measurements of the investigated molecules.
    • Using Mosaicity to Tune Thermal Transport in Polycrystalline AlN Thin Films

      Singh, Shivkant; Shervin, Shahab; Sun, Haiding; Yarali, Milad; Chen, Jie; Lin, Ronghui; Li, Kuang-Hui; Li, Xiaohang; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios (ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018-05-17) [Article]
      The effect of controlling the c-axis alignment (mosaicity) to the cross-plane thermal transport in textured polycrystalline aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films is experimentally and theoretically investigated. We show that by controlling the sputtering conditions we are able to deposit AlN thin films with varying c-axis grain tilt (mosaicity) from 10° to 0°. Microstructural characterization shows that the films are nearly identical in thickness and grain size, and the difference in mosaicity alters the grain interface quality. This has a significant effect to thermal transport where a thermal conductivity of 4.22 W/mK vs. 8.09 W/mK are measured for samples with tilt angles of 10° vs. 0° respectively. The modified Callaway model was used to fit the theoretical curves to the experimental results using various phonon scattering mechanisms at the grain interface. It was found that using a non-gray model gives an overview of the phonon scattering at the grain boundaries, whereas treating the grain boundary as an array of dislocation lines with varying angle relative to the heat flow, best describes the mechanism of the thermal transport. Lastly, our results show that controlling the quality of the grain interface provides a tuning knob to control thermal transport in polycrystalline materials.
    • Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

      Park, Woojin; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Min, Jungwook; Lee, Sang Kyung; Lee, Byoung Hun; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Nanotechnology, IOP Publishing, 2018-05-15) [Article]
      We report a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT) for effectively increase channel width. Such a saw-shaped electrode has ~2 times longer contact line at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement and especially reduction in the contact resistance which is a serious challenge.
    • Two-Phase Microfluidic Systems for High Throughput Quantification of Agglutination Assays

      Castro, David (2018-04) [Dissertation]
      Advisor: Foulds, Ian G.
      Committee members: Kosel, Jürgen; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Tabeling, Patrick
      Lab-on-Chip, the miniaturization of the chemical and analytical lab, is an endeavor that seems to come out of science fiction yet is slowly becoming a reality. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines different areas of science and engineering. Within these areas, microfluidics is a specialized field that deals with the behavior, control and manipulation of small volumes of fluids. Agglutination assays are rapid, single-step, low-cost immunoassays that use microspheres to detect a wide variety molecules and pathogens by using a specific antigen-antibody interaction. Agglutination assays are particularly suitable for the miniaturization and automation that two-phase microfluidics can offer, a combination that can help tackle the ever pressing need of high-throughput screening for blood banks, epidemiology, food banks diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this thesis, we present a two-phase microfluidic system capable of incubating and quantifying agglutination assays. The microfluidic channel is a simple fabrication solution, using laboratory tubing. These assays are incubated by highly efficient passive mixing with a sample-to-answer time of 2.5 min, a 5-10 fold improvement over traditional agglutination assays. It has a user-friendly interface that that does not require droplet generators, in which a pipette is used to continuously insert assays on-demand, with no down-time in between experiments at 360 assays/h. System parameters are explored, using the streptavidin-biotin interaction as a model assay, with a minimum detection limit of 50 ng/mL using optical image analysis. We compare optical image analysis and light scattering as quantification methods, and demonstrate the first light scattering quantification of agglutination assays in a two-phase ow format. The application can be potentially applied to other biomarkers, which we demonstrate using C-reactive protein (CRP) assays. Using our system, we can take a commercially available CRP qualitative slide agglutination assay, and turn it into a quantitative High Sensitivity-CRP test, with a lower detection limit of 0.5 mg/L using light scattering. Agglutination assays are an incredibly versatile tool, capable of detecting an ever-growing catalog of infectious diseases, proteins and metabolites. A system such as that presented in this thesis is a step towards being able to produce high throughput microfluidic solutions with widespread adoption.
    • Collision Analysis at 60-GHz mmWave Mesh Networks: The Case With Blockage and Shadowing

      Lyu, Kangjia (2018-05) [Thesis]
      Advisor: Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
      Committee members: Rezki, Zouheir; Kammoun, Abla; Shihada, Basem
      This thesis can be viewed as two parts. The first part focuses on performance analysis of millimeter wave (mmWave) communications. We investigate how the interference behaves in the outdoor mesh network operating at 60-GHz when block age and shadowing are present using the probability of collision as a metric, under both the protocol model and the physical model. In contrast with results reported in mmWave mesh networks at 60-GHz that advocates that interference has only a marginal effect, our results show that for a short-range link of 100 m, the collision probability gets considerably larger (beyond 0.1) at the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of interest (for example, the reference value is chosen as 15 dB for uncoded quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK)). Compensation or compromise should be made in order to maintain a low probability of collision, either by reducing transmitter node density which is to the detriment of the network connectivity, or by switching to a compact linear antenna array with more at-top elements, which places more stringent requirements in device integration techniques. The second part of this thesis focuses on finding the optimal unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) deployment in the sense that it can maximize over specific network connectivity. We have introduced a connectivity measure based on the commonly used network connectivity metric, which is refered to as global soft connectivity. This measure can be easily extended to account for different propagation models, such as Rayleigh fading and Nakagami fading. It can also be modified to incorporate the link state probability and beam alignment errors in highly directional networks. As can be shown, under the line-of-sight (LOS) and Rayleigh fading assumptions, the optimization regarding the global soft connectivity can be expressed as a weighted sum of the square of link distances between the nodes within the network, namely the ground-to-ground links, the UAV-to-UAV links and the ground-to-UAV links. This can be shown to be a quadratically constrained quadratic program (QCQP) problem with non-convex constraints. We have also extended our global connectivity to other types of connectivity criteria: network k-section connectivity and k-connectivity. In all the three cases, we have proposed a heuristic and straightforward way of finding the suboptimal UAV locations. The simulation results have shown that all these methods can improve our network connectivity considerably, which can achieve a gain of up to 30% for a five UAV scenario.
    • System on Package (SoP) Millimeter Wave Filters for 5G Applications

      Showail, Jameel (2018-05) [Thesis]
      Advisor: Shamim, Atif
      Committee members: Salama, Khaled N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.
      Bandpass filters are an essential component of wireless communication systems that only transmits frequencies corresponding to the communication band and rejects all other frequencies. As the deployment of 5G draws nearer, first deployments are expected in 2020 [1], the need for viable filters at the new frequency bands becomes more imminent. Size and performance are two critical considerations for a filter that will be used in emerging mobile communication applications. The high frequency of 5G communication, 28 GHz as opposed to sub 6 GHz for nearly all previous communication protocols, means that previously utilized lumped component based solutions cannot be implemented since they are ill-suited for mm-wave applications. The focus of this work is the miniaturization of a high-performance filter. The Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) is a high performance and promising structure and Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC) is a high-performance material that both can operate at higher frequencies than the technologies used for previous telecommunication generations. To miniaturize the structure, a compact folded four-cavity SIW filter is designed, implemented and tested. The feeding structure is integrated into the filter to exploit the System on Package (SoP) attributes of LTCC and further reduce the total area of the filter individually and holistically when looking at the final integrated system. Two unique three dimensional (3D) integrated SoP LTCC two-stage SIW single cavity filters and one unique four-cavity filter all with embedded planar resonators are designed, fabricated and tested. The embedded resonators create a two-stage effect in a single cavity filter. The better single cavity design provides a 15% fractional bandwidth at a center frequency of 28.12 GHz, and with an insertion loss of -0.53 dB. The fabricated four-cavity filter has a 3-dB bandwidth of .98GHz centered at 27.465 GHz, and with an insertion loss of -2.66 dB. The designs presented highlight some of the previously leveraged advantages of SoP designs while also including additions of embedded planar resonators to feed the SIW cavity. The integration of both elements realizes a compact and high-performance filter that is well suited for future mm-wave applications including 5G.