Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ybyraiymkul, Doskhan; Burhan, Muhammad; Oh, Seung Jin; Ng, Kim Choon(AIP Publishing, 2019-01-26)[Conference Paper]
Over the last century, fresh water and cooling demand have been increased tremendously due to improved living standard, industrial and economic development. The conventional air-conditioning and refrigeration processes consume 15% of total global electricity and it is expected to increase any fold due to harsh weather conditions. In terms of fresh water supplies, the current 38 billion m3 per year desalination capacity is projected to increase to 54 billion m3 per year by 2030, 40% more compared to 2016. The current business as usual trend of cooling and desalination is not sustainable due to high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In contrast, the adsorption (AD) cycle operate at low-grade waste heat or renewable energy and produce fresh water and cooling simultaneously. The major bottleneck of conventional thermally driven AD cycle is its large foot print and capital cost due to complex packed bed arrangements. We proposed pressure swing adsorption cycle (PSAD) that can utilize low-pressure steam (2-5 bar) for regeneration using thermal vapor compressor (TVC). The proposed system has best thermodynamic synergy with CCGT plants where low-pressure bleed steam can be utilized more efficiently to produce cooling and water. In this paper, a preliminary experimental investigation on PSAD has been presented. It is successfully demonstrated that 2 bar primary steam can regenerate silica gel at less then 0.5 kPa through TVC with compression ratio 3-4 and entrainment ratio around 1-1.5. The discharge steam can be re-utilized to operate the desalination cycle, maximizing the bleed steam exergy. The proposed system will not only reduce footprint but also CAPEX and OPEX due to simple design and operation.
Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Oh, Seung Jin; Ng, Kim Choon(Energy Conversion and Management, Elsevier BV, 2018-03-22)[Article]
Solar energy being intermittent in nature, can provide a sustainable, steady and high density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell-efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive wide spread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV.
Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad; Burhan, Muhammad; Soo Son, Hyun; Jin Oh, Seung; Ng, Kim Choon(Applied Thermal Engineering, Elsevier BV, 2018-01-31)[Article]
The inevitable escalation in economic development have serious implications on energy and environment nexus. The International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) predicted that the Non Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries will lead with 71% rise in energy demand in contrast with only 18% in developed countries from 2012-2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, about 40% of primary energy is consumed for cogeneration based power and desalination plants. The cogeneration based plants are struggling with unfair primary fuel cost apportionment to electricity and desalination. Also, the desalination processes performance evaluated based on derived energy, providing misleading selection of processes. There is a need of (i) appropriate primary fuel cost appointment method for multi-purposed plants and (ii) desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy. As a solution, we proposed exergetic analysis for primary fuel percentage apportionment to all components in the cycle according to the quality of working fluid utilized. The proposed method showed that the gas turbine was under charged by 40%, steam turbine was overcharged by 71% and desalination was overcharged by 350% by conventional energetic apportionment methods. We also proposed a new and most suitable desalination processes performance evaluation method based on primary energy, called universal performance ratio (UPR). Since UPR is based on primary energy, it can be used to evaluate any kind of desalination processes, thermally driven, pressure driven & humidification-dehumidification etc. on common platform. We showed that all desalination processes are operating only at 10-13% of thermodynamic limit (TL) of UPR. For future sustainability, desalination must achieve 25-30% of TL and it is only possible either by hybridization of different processes or by innovative membrane materials.
Despite being highest potential energy source, solar intermittency and low power density make it difficult for solar energy to compete with the conventional power plants. Highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides best technology to be paired with the electrolytic hydrogen production, as a sustainable energy source with long term energy storage. However, the conventional gigantic design of CPV system limits its market and application to the open desert fields without any rooftop installation scope, unlike conventional PV. This makes CPV less popular among solar energy customers. This paper discusses the development of compact CPV-Hydrogen system for the rooftop application in the urban region. The in-house built compact CPV system works with hybrid solar tracking of 0.1° accuracy, ensured through proposed double lens collimator based solar tracking sensor. With PEM based electrolyser, the compact CPV-hydrogen system showed 28% CPV efficiency and 18% sunlight to hydrogen (STH) efficiency, for rooftop operation in tropical region of Singapore. For plant designers, the solar to hydrogen production rating of 217 kWh/kg has been presented with 15% STH daily average efficiency, recorded from the long term field operation of the system.
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