Chekli, Laura; Pathak, Nirenkumar; Kim, Youngjin; Phuntsho, Sherub; Li, Sheng; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Shon, Ho Kyong(Journal of Environmental Management, Elsevier BV, 2018-08-15)[Article]
Solutions to mitigate the reverse diffusion of solutes are critical to the successful commercialisation of the fertiliser drawn forward osmosis process. In this study, we proposed to combine a high performance fertiliser (i.e., ammonium sulfate or SOA) with surfactants as additives as an approach to reduce the reverse diffusion of ammonium ions. Results showed that combining SOA with both anionic and non-ionic surfactants can help in reducing the reverse salt diffusion by up to 67%. We hypothesised that, hydrophobic interactions between the surfactant tails and the membrane surface likely constricted membrane pores resulting in increased rejection of ions with large hydrated radii such as SO42−. By electroneutrality, the rejection of the counter ions (i.e., NH4+) also therefore subsequently improved. Anionic surfactant was found to further decrease the reverse salt diffusion due to electrostatic repulsions between the surfactant negatively-charged heads and SO42−. However, when the feed solution contains cations with small hydrated radii (e.g., Na+); it was found that NH4+ ions can be substituted in the DS to maintain its electroneutrality and thus the diffusion of NH4+ to the feed solution was increased.
Export search results
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
For anonymous users the allowed maximum amount is 50 search results.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.