Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon(The Energy Mix for Sustaining Our Future, Springer Nature, 2018-12-30)[Book Chapter]
Solar energy being intermittent in nature can provide a sustainable, steady, and high-density energy source when converted into electrolytic hydrogen. However, in the current photovoltaic market trend with 99% conventional single junction PV panels, this cannot be achieved efficiently and economically. The advent of the multi-junction solar cells (MJCs), with cell efficiency exceeding 46%, has yet to receive widespread acceptance in the current PV market in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system, because of its system design complexity, limiting its application scope and customers. The objective of this paper is to develop a low-cost compact CPV system that will not only eliminate its application and installation-related restrictions but it is also introducing a highly efficient and sustainable photovoltaic system for common consumer, to convert intermittent sunlight into green hydrogen. The developed CPV system negates the common conviction by showing two times more power output than the flat plate PV, in the tropical region. In addition, sunlight to hydrogen conversion efficiency of 18% is recorded for CPV, which is two times higher than alone electricity production efficiency of flat plate PV. As concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system can operate at ×1000 concentration ratio, therefore, such high concentration ratio requires heat dissipation from the cell area to maintain optimum temperature. With such heat recovery, the hybrid CPVT system has shown solar energy conversion efficiency of 71%.
Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon(Energy Sustainability in Built and Urban Environments, Springer Nature, 2018-11-10)[Book Chapter]
Renewable energy resources are susceptible to intermittent power supply, and their standalone operation has prime importance for steady power supply. Solar energy resources have high global availability and potential among all energy sources. Most of areas with high solar energy potential have either dry hot or tropical climate. A major portion of primary energy supply for such area is utilized in their cooling energy needs. In this chapter, a sustainable approach for cooling needs has been proposed using solar energy-based highly efficient concentrated photovoltaic (CPV). A combined cooling system, based upon mechanical vapour compression (MVC), and adsorption chillers have been considered. The MVC chiller utilizes the produced electricity by the third -generation multi-junction solar cells (MJCs). However, adsorption chiller is operated with thermal energy recovered from the cooling of CPV system, which also increases the system efficiency as high as 71%. To handle intermittency, hydrogen production is used primary energy storage system, along with the hot water storage. The complete system configuration is then optimized for standalone operation with optimum components size and minimum cost, using micro-genetic algorithm according to proposed optimization strategy.
Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Burhan, Muhammad; Ng, Kim Choon(Energy Sustainability in Built and Urban Environments, Springer Nature, 2018-11-10)[Book Chapter]
The economic development has serious impact on the nexus between water, energy, and environment. This impact is even more severe in Non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (non-OECD) countries due to improper resource management. It is predicted that energy demand will increase by more than 71% in non-OECD as compared to 18% in developed countries by 2040. In Gulf Cooperation Council countries, water and power sector consume almost half of primary energy produced. In the past, many studies were focused on renewable energies based on desalination processes to accommodate fivefold increase in demand by 2050 but they were not commercialized due to intermittent nature of renewable energy such as solar and wind. We proposed highly efficient energy storage material, magnesium oxide (MgO), system integrated with innovative hybrid desalination cycle for future sustainable water supplies. The condensation of Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor during day operation with concentrated solar energy and exothermic hydration of MgO at night can produce 24 h thermal energy without any interruption. It was showed that Mg(OH)2 dehydration vapor condensation produces 120 °C and MgO hydration exothermic reaction produces 140 °C heat during day and night operation, respectively, corresponding to energy storage of 81 kJ/mol and 41 kJ/mol. The produced energy can be utilized to operate desalination cycle to reduce CO2 emission and to achieve COP21 goal. The proposed hybrid desalination cycle is successfully demonstrated by pilot experiments at KAUST. It was showed that MgO + MEDAD cycle can achieve performance over UPR = 200, one of the highest reported ever.
Burhan, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil; Ng, Kim Choon(Energy, Environment, and Sustainability, Springer Nature, 2018-11-02)[Book Chapter]
The single-junction-based conventional PV panels are dominating almost the entire photovoltaic market. In addition, they can only offer a limited solar conversion efficiency due to limitations of the band gap of their single pn-junction. On the other hand, third-generation multi-junction solar cell offers the highest solar energy conversion efficiency as their multiple pn-junctions can absorb a larger portion of solar spectrum. Despite such high potential, their share in current photovoltaic market is still negligible, even though, they have been used in form of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) systems to reduce the use of expensive solar cell material. The main reason for such low market share is due to the gigantic design of commercial PV system which is only suitable to install in the open desert regions, thereby limiting its customers and application scope. In this chapter, a compact CPV system design is discussed with the motivation for its rooftop application and installation. Moreover, the long-term performance of CPV is also compared with conventional PV system in tropical conditions to highlight its potential in low solar energy areas.
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