Recent Submissions

  • Paper as a Substrate and an Active Material in Paper Electronics

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (ACS Applied Electronic Materials, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-11-16) [Article]
    Paper is an essential part of our daily life in many different ways. It is made by compressing cellulose fibers sourced from wood into thin sheets. Paper is an inherently flexible material which can transport liquids through its medium by capillary action without the need of external force. The mesh network of cellulose in paper gives it a unique set of mechanical properties. Owing to its exclusive and advantageous properties, paper is being used as an active material and a substrate in electronics. Paper as an active material means that paper is utilized in its intrinsic form without modifications. Activated (or functionalized) paper has been widely exploited in many applications, but in order to take true advantage of all the beneficial properties of paper, it needs to be used in its natural produced form. Notably, paper is employed in humidity sensors, pressure sensors, and MEMS devices in its natural form. Additionally, paper is used as a substrate in additively manufactured and origami-inspired electronic devices. Here, we present an overview of how paper is used to make fully flexible and low-cost devices. Furthermore, the emergence of paper-based point-of-care devices is briefly discussed.
  • Symmetrical orientation of spiral-interconnects for high mechanical stability of stretchable electronics

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Damdam, Asrar Nabil; Khan, Sherjeel Munsif; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (IEEE, 2020-10-30) [Conference Paper]
    Recently, interconnect based stretchable electronic devices have attained growing interest due to its application for various state-of-the-art technologies. Here, we report an engineered design of spiral interconnects for a series of stretchable networks referred to as the symmetrical series; wherein spirals connect to the island in the symmetry manner. A systematic analysis of Si-based spiral interconnects by numerical modeling, and experiments show that our design provides higher stretchability of 165% in comparison to the conventionally used nonsymmetrical design. The reason for high mechanical reliability is attributed to the favorable unwrapping profile of spiral interconnect due to the nature of forces acting on it during the stretching process. In contrast, for the nonsymmetrical series, the nature of tensile forces produces the rotation, and resultant tilting of spiral arm results in low stretchability of 150%. As a result, nonsymmetrical interconnect fails at earlier stages of stretching. Our study demonstrates the significance of the orientation of spiral interconnects linked to the island to attain the high performance of stretchable electronic devices.
  • Design Criteria for Horseshoe and Spiral-Based Interconnects for Highly Stretchable Electronic Devices

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Damdam, Asrar Nabil; Khan, Sherjeel Munsif; Bunaiyan, Saleh; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Advanced Functional Materials, Wiley, 2020-10-27) [Article]
    Stretchable electronics can be used for numerous advanced applications such as soft and wearable actuators, sensors, bio-implantable devices, and surgical tools because of their ability to conform to curvilinear surfaces, including human skin. The efficacy of these devices depends on the development of stretchable geometries such as interconnection-based configurations and the associated mechanics that helps to achieve optimum configurations. This work presents the essential mechanics of silicon (Si) island-interconnection structures, which include horseshoe and spiral interconnections, without reducing the areal efficiency. In particular, this study demonstrates the range of the geometrical parameters where they have a high stretchability and cyclic life. The numerical results predict the areas that are prone to breaking followed by experimental validation. The figure-of-merit for these configurations is achieved by mapping the fracture-free zones for in-plane and out-of-plane stretching with essential implications in stretchable and wearable system design. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the mechanical response for a range of materials (i.e., copper, gold, aluminum, silver, and graphene) that experience the plastic deformations in contrast to conventionally used Si-based devices that represent the extended usage for advanced stretchable electronic devices. The detailed mechanics of these configurations provides comprehensive guidelines to manufacture wearable and stretchable electronic devices.
  • Mechanically flexible viscosity sensor for real-time monitoring of tubular architectures for industrial applications

    Nour, Maha A.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Qaiser, Nadeem; Bunaiyan, Saleh A.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Engineering Reports, Wiley, 2020-10-25) [Article]
    Real-time monitoring of fluid viscosities in tubular systems is essential for industries transporting fluid media. The available real-time viscometers for tubular systems have major drawbacks, such as using invasive methods with large pressure drops due to flow disturbances, destructive installation processes with permanent tube damage, and limited operability with laminar flows. Therefore, developing a viscometer to address the above-mentioned concerns is required for industrial applications. In this study, a new application of a velocity-dependent viscometer using a novel design for real-time measurements with insignificant flow disruption is proposed. It involves a Poly (methyl-methacrylate) microchannel bridge with a microfluidic flowmeter attached to a mechanically flexible Polydimethylsiloxane platform connected to the inner surface of the pipe, which can adapt to different pipe diameters and curvatures. Moreover, the proposed viscometer uses the pipe flow driving force to flow fluids into the microchannel for measurement without requiring a pumping system or any sample withdrawals. The results of the simulation analysis match the experimental results of the sensor performance. The sensor can measure different viscosities in the range of 4-334 mPa s with a resolution higher than 2.7 mPa s. Finally, a stand-alone system is integrated with the sensor for wireless data transmission.
  • Stress concentration analysis and fabrication of silicon (100) based ultra-stretchable structures with parylene coating

    Rehman, Mutee Ur; Babatain, Wedyan; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Qaiser, Nadeem; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto (Extreme Mechanics Letters, Elsevier BV, 2020-10-19) [Article]
    Research in stretchable electronics is helping to revolutionize the current electronic industry, particularly in wearable and bio-integrated devices. Cost-effectiveness and easy manufacturing are key factors that contribute to shaping the fate of such technologies. In this work, we present a fabrication method for a novel ultra-stretchable, serpentine-arm spiral (SAS) that was built using a low-cost, standard bulk silicon (100) wafer. However, structural defects that often appear during patterning processes, can lead to stress concentration and structural failure at these sites upon stretching. Parylene coating of the structures is proposed to minimize this stress concentration and improve structure's robustness. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to demonstrate the concentration of stress at these defective sites with 2 sizes (0.1μm and 1μm) and at different locations along the arms. Results show that SAS structures reach up to ∼80% stress reduction at the defective location compared to straight-arm spirals, while the parylene-coating helps to reduce it up to ∼60% further. On the other hand, fabricated uncoated, SAS structures reached up to ∼600% prescribed strain before fracture, while parylene-coating improves this maximum admissible strain in ∼50%. Additionally, a cyclic tensile test was then performed on the fabricated structures, uncoated and parylene-coated, for over 3000 cycles without fracture. The results observed on coated structures greatly improve the mechanical reliance of such brittle structures, which could be extended to other stretchable configurations.
  • Multi-Dimensional Integration and Packaging of Devices for Internet-of-Things Applications

    Elatab, Nazek; Suwaidan, Reema; Alghamdi, Yara; Alhazzany, Alhanouf; Almansour, Reema; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (IEEE, 2020-10-13) [Conference Paper]
    IoT applications are increasingly becoming widespread with more stringent system requirements. In this work, we demonstrate a nature-inspired integration and packaging technology that achieves self-powered multi-functional systems with optimized performance and small footprint area. The integration technique is based on bifacial usage of the substrate where devices on both sides are interconnected via through-substrate-vias. Multiple substrates are then integrated and folded into a 3D architecture using side-interlocks following a puzzle-like fashion. On the outer sides of the 3D architecture, sensors, RF devices and energy harvesters are integrated while on the inner faces, a solid-state battery in addition to power- management and data-management circuitry are embedded. To package the system, a polymeric encapsulant is used to protect the inner circuitry and enhance the mechanical resilience of the system. Finally, the system is used to send the collected data wirelessly to a phone using an embedded Bluetooth Low Energy unit.
  • Soft Actuators for Soft Robotic Applications: A Review

    Elatab, Nazek; Mishra, Rishabh B.; Al-Modaf, Fhad; Joharji, Lana; Alsharif, Aljohara A.; Alamoudi, Haneen; Diaz, Marlon; Qaiser, Nadeem; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Advanced Intelligent Systems, Wiley, 2020-08-23) [Article]
    Soft robotics technologies are paving the way toward robotic abilities which are vital for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, manipulation, gripping, human–machine interaction, locomotion, and more. An essential component in a soft robot is the soft actuator which provides the system with a deformable body and allows it to interact with the environment to achieve a desired actuation pattern, such as locomotion. This Review article aims to provide researchers interested in the soft robotics field with a reference guide about the various state-of-the-art soft actuation methodologies that are developed with a wide range of stimuli including light, heat, applied electric and magnetic fields with a focus on their various applications in soft robotics. The underlying principles of the soft actuators are discussed with a focus on the resulting motion complexities, deformations, and multi-functionalities. Finally, various promising applications and examples of the different soft actuators are discussed in addition to their further development potential.
  • Multisensory graphene-skin for harsh-environment applications

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2020-08-17) [Article]
    Monitoring the environment using electronic systems in harsh environments requires materials and processes that can withstand harsh environments. Environmental harshness can come from the surrounding temperature, varying pressure, intense radiation, reactive chemicals, humidity, salinity, or a combination of any of these conditions. Here, we present graphene as a candidate for a multisensory flexible platform in harsh-environment applications. We designed sensors for harsh environments like high temperature (operating range up to 650 C), high salinity, and chemical harsh environments (pH sensing) on a single flexible polyimide sheet. The high-temperature graphene sensor gives a sensitivity of 260% higher than the Pt-based sensor. The temperature sensor acts between metal and a thermistor, thereby providing an opportunity to classify the region depending on temperature (<210 C linear and > 210 C up to 650 C as quadratic). Improved performances are observed for salinity and pH sensing in comparison with existing non-graphene solutions. The simple transfer free fabrication technique of graphene on a flexible platform and laser-induced graphene on a flexible polyimide sheet opens the potential for harsh-environment monitoring and multisensory graphene skin in future applications.
  • Flexible High-Efficiency Corrugated Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells for Application in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Payload Transportation

    Elatab, Nazek; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Energy Technology, Wiley, 2020-08-17) [Article]
    In recent years, small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs) have proven to be exceptionally useful. However, most of the commercially available drones are electric powered and therefore have a short endurance. Solar powered UAVs have recently received increased attention due to their ability to fly continuously for several days using solar energy. For this purpose, solar cells must show high-efficiency, lightweight and ultra-flexibility in order to be fully compliant to the drone wings/body and avoid degrading its aerodynamic characteristics. Nevertheless, previous demonstrations used rigid/semi-flexible cells. Here, corrugated ultra-flexible silicon solar cells (19% efficiency) with a smaller specific weight (645 g/m2, encapsulated) are considered and used. A theoretical comparison between the performances of the corrugated vs. commercial semi-flexible cells is performed in terms of flight endurance in “AtlantikSolar” UAV. The results show that due to the ultra-lightweight of the corrugated cells and their ability to expand at higher temperatures without bowing, an enhancement in the flight time up to 19% can be achieved compared to the commercial cells which enables heavier payloads (7 lbs) transportation. Finally, the corrugated cells (12.5 cm by 4 cm) are experimentally tested on a small-sized drone under different conditions indoors and a 10% extended flight is reported.
  • Nature-inspired spherical silicon solar cell for three-dimensional light harvesting, improved dust and thermal management

    Elatab, Nazek; Qaiser, Nadeem; Babatain, Wedyan; Bahabry, Rabab; Shamsuddin, Rana; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (MRS Communications, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-06-17) [Article]
    Unconventional techniques to benefit from the low-cost and high-efficiency monocrystalline silicon solar cells can lead to new device capabilities and engineering prospects. Here, a nature-inspired spherical solar cell is demonstrated, which is capable of capturing light three-dimensionally. The proposed cell architecture is based on monocrystalline silicon and is fabricated using a corrugation technique. The spherical cell shows an increase in power output by up to 101% with respect to a traditional flat cell with the same projection area using different reflective materials. Finally, the spherical cell shows advantages in terms of enhanced heat dissipation and reduced dust accumulation over conventional cells.
  • Low-cost foil/paper based touch mode pressure sensing element as artificial skin module for prosthetic hand

    Mishra, Rishabh B.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2020-06-15) [Conference Paper]
    Capacitive pressure sensors have several advantages in areas such as robotics, automation, aerospace, biomedical and consumer electronics. We present mathematical modelling, finite element analysis (FEA), fabrication and experimental characterization of ultra-low cost and paper-based, touch-mode, flexible capacitive pressure sensor element using Do-It-Yourself (DIY) technology. The pressure sensing element is utilized to design large-area electronics skin for low-cost prosthetic hands. The presented sensor is characterized in normal, transition, touch and saturation modes. The sensor has higher sensitivity and linearity in touch mode operation from 10 to 40 kPa of applied pressure compared to the normal (0 to 8 kPa), transition (8 to 10 kPa) and saturation mode (after 40 kPa) with response time of 15.85 ms. Advantages of the presented sensor are higher sensitivity, linear response, less diaphragm area, less von Mises stress at the clamped edges region, low temperature drift, robust structure and less separation gap for large pressure measurement compared to normal mode capacitive pressure sensors. The linear range of pressure change is utilized for controlling the position of a servo motor for precise movement in robotic arm using wireless communication, which can be utilized for designing skin-like structure for low-cost prosthetic hands.
  • Textile electronics - Prospects, advances, challenges and opportunities

    Badghaish, Huda S.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (MRS Advances, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-05-29) [Article]
    The field of textile electronics aims to use clothing materials and fabrics as an active or activated substrate for electronics. This is an intriguing idea for researchers, however, the field comes with its own challenges and design requirements. A textile electronic system should be functional, reliable, safe and affordable while maintaining the original utility of the fabric. This review paper presents a comprehensive picture of prospects, advances, challenges and opportunities of textile electronics. It also offers a critical outlook to advance the field for technology translation.
  • Flexible Nanoporous Template for the Design and Development of Reusable Anti-COVID-19 Hydrophobic Face Masks

    Elatab, Nazek; Qaiser, Nadeem; Badghaish, Huda; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (ACS Nano, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-05-20) [Article]
    Since the outbreak of the severe respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the use of face masks has become ubiquitous worldwide to control the rapid spread of this pandemic. As a result, the world is currently facing a face mask shortage, and some countries have placed limits on the number of masks that can be bought by each person. Although the surgical grade N95 mask provides the highest level of protection currently available, its filtration efficiency for sub-300 nm particles is around 85% due to its wider pore size (∼300 nm). Because the COVID-19 virus shows a diameter of around 65-125 nm, there is a need for developing more efficient masks. To overcome these issues, we demonstrate the development of a flexible, nanoporous membrane to achieve a reusable N95 mask with a replaceable membrane and enhanced filtration efficiency. We first developed a flexible nanoporous Si-based template on a silicon-on-insulator wafer using KOH etching and then used the template as a hard mask during a reactive ion etching process to transfer the patterns onto a flexible and lightweight (<0.12 g) polymeric membrane. Pores with sizes down to 5 nm were achieved with a narrow distribution. Theoretical calculations show that airflow rates above 85 L/min are possible through the mask, which confirms its breathability over a wide range of pore sizes, densities, membrane thicknesses, and pressure drops. Finally, the membrane is intrinsically hydrophobic, which contributes to antifouling and self-cleaning as a result of droplets rolling and sliding on the inclined mask area.
  • Metal coated polymer and paper-based cantilever design and analysis for acoustic pressure sensing

    Mishra, R. B.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (AIP Advances, AIP Publishing, 2020-05-12) [Article]
    Cantilevers are one of the most utilized mechanical elements for acoustic sensing. In comparison to the edge clamped diaphragms of different shapes, a single edge clamped cantilever makes an acoustic sensor mechanically sensitive for detection of lower pressure. The aspect ratio of cantilevers is one of the most important parameters which affect sensitivity. Herein, we present a mathematical, finite element method and experimental analysis to determine the effect of the aspect ratio on the resonant frequency, response time, mechanical sensitivity, and capacitive sensitivity of a cantilever-based acoustic pressure sensor. Three cantilevers of different aspect ratios (0.67, 1, and 1.5) have been chosen for sound pressure application to detect capacitance change. The cantilever with the smallest aspect ratio (0.67) has the highest response time (206 ms), mechanical sensitivity, and capacitive sensitivity (22 fF), which reduce after increasing the aspect ratio. The resonant frequency of the cantilever was also analyzed by applying sweep in sound frequency. It was found to be minimum for the cantilever with the smallest aspect ratio (510 Hz) and increases with an increase in the aspect ratio. We have applied the garage fabrication process using low cost, recyclable, and easily available materials such as metal coated polymer sheets, mounting tapes and glass slides as alternative materials for expensive materials.
  • AI Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Payload Transport Application

    Alshanbari, Reem; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Elatab, Nazek; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (IEEE, 2020-04-10) [Conference Paper]
    Recently unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have received a growing attention due to their wide range of applications. Here, we demonstrate UAVs with artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities for application in autonomous payload transport. An algorithm is developed for target detection with multiple phases on the ground, which once the target is detected, would trigger the release of the payload that is attached on the drone. The experimental results show that the average frame rate over x seconds achieved a 19.4010717352 fps (frame per second) detection speed. Releasing the payload is achieved using a 3D printed system based on rack and pinion gears. In addition, auto flight program is developed to enable the autonomous movement of the drone. As a proof-of-concept, a small drone known as "Phantom DJI" is used for.6 kg autonomous payload transport along a predefined route to a target location.
  • Enhanced photo-response of WS2 photodetectors through interfacial defect engineering using TiO2 interlayer

    Pak, Yusin; Park, Woojin; Alaal, Naresh; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Aravindh, S. Assa; Mitra, Somak; Xin, Bin; Min, Jung-Wook; Kim, Hyeonghun; Lim, Namsoo; Cho, Byungjin; Jung, Gun Young; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Roqan, Iman S. (ACS Applied Electronic Materials, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-02-26) [Article]
    To develop a stable and reliable two-dimensional (2D) tungsten disulfide (WS2)-based photodetector (PD), it is essential to address the issue of interfacial defects that are unavoidably formed at an interface between WS2 and metal contact, as such defects can markedly deteriorate photo-response characteristics. In this work, this drawback is mitigated by adopting a facile technique for passivating a WS2 surface with an ultrathin TiO2 film. The TiO2 interlayer is deposited on the 2D-WS2 surface via twenty cycles of atomic layer deposition (ALD) prior to proceeding with photolithography and contact metal deposition. Advanced characterizations reveal that TiO2/WS2 PD exhibits enhanced photo-response compared to bare WS2. Much higher photo-responsivity (~10 times higher at 1 mW/cm2) and faster recovery (~124 times faster at 0.1 V) is obtained from TiO2/WS2 PDs relative to bare WS2 PDs. The mechanism underlying the enhanced PD performance is faithfully demonstrated. The computational density functional theory (DFT) using Hyed-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) approach demonstrates the significant role of TiO2/WS2 interface in facilitating the charge transfer, and improving the PD performance compared to the bare device. This approach paves the way for developing reliable and high-performance 2D WS2-based optoelectronic devices.
  • Mirror-symmetry controlled mechanical response of interconnects for stretchable electronics

    Qaiser, Nadeem; Damdam, Asrar Nabil; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Extreme Mechanics Letters, Elsevier BV, 2020-02-06) [Article]
    With the advent of stretchable electronics, the numerous applications including wearable devices, optoelectronics, and implantable medical devices are realized and thus interconnects that can stretch/deform help to attain these stretchable electronic devices have gained extensive attention. Here, we present a novel spiral interconnect design that utilizes the mirror-topology wherein spiral connect to island in symmetry about the centerline, in contrast to the conventional no-mirror configuration. We fabricate the microscale stretchable mirror configurations for triangular networks and experimentally demonstrate their stretching profiles. A systematic comparison using experiments and FEM modeling illustrates enhanced mechanical response of mirror network by lowering von Mises stress up to ∼20%. The mirror configuration also achieves the higher stretchability. Additionally, interconnects of mirror triangular network experience the identical deformations and stress, as compared to dissimilar stress states in the no-mirror counterpart. We further validate the presented scheme to the complex stretchable arrays i.e. hexagonal arrays. Our experimental and FEM results corroborate with each other. Our proposed configuration can help to customize the deformations and its corresponding stretching profiles, which in turn provide the predictive response of the stretchable networks.
  • Diaphragm shape effect on the performance of foil-based capacitive pressure sensors

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Mishra, R. B.; Qaiser, Nadeem; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (AIP Advances, AIP Publishing, 2020-01-07) [Article]
    We present detailed shape-based analyses to compare the performance of metal foil-based capacitive pressure sensors based on the shape of the diaphragm (top electrode). We perform a detailed analysis on the use of new material and deflection in various shaped diaphragms to act as a performance indicator for pressure-based capacitive sensors. A low-cost, recyclable, and readily available material is used to present an alternative to the expensive materials used in conventional pressure sensors. Diaphragms of five different shapes (circle, ellipse, pentagon, square, and rectangle) are fabricated and analyzed. Mathematical, FEM, and experimental tests are performed for capacitive sensors fabricated in five different shapes. The mathematically calculated deflection for each shaped diaphragm is compared with the results of the corresponding FEM simulations. Two different experiments are performed to verify the performance of pressure sensors.
  • Design Analysis and Human Tests of Foil-Based Wheezing Monitoring System for Asthma Detection

    Khan, Sherjeel M.; Qaiser, Nadeem; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-12-30) [Article]
    We present a flexible acoustic sensor that has been designed to detect wheezing (a common symptom of asthma) while attached to the chest of a human. We adopted a parallel-plate capacitive structure using air as the dielectric material. The pressure (acoustic) waves from wheezing vibrate the top diaphragm of the structure, thereby changing the output capacitance. The sensor is designed in such a way that it resonates in the frequency range of wheezing (100-1000 Hz), which presents twofold benefits. The resonance results in large deflection of the diaphragm that eradicates the need for using signal amplifiers (used in microphones). Second, the design itself acts as a low-pass filter to reduce the effect of background noise, which mostly lies in the >1000-Hz frequency range. The resulting analog interface is minimal, and thus consumes less power and occupies less space. The sensor is made up of low-cost sustainable materials (aluminum foil) that greatly reduce the cost and complexity of manufacturing processes. A robust wheezing detection (matched filter) algorithm is used to identify different types of wheezing sounds among the noisy signals originating from the chest that lie in the same frequency range as wheezing. The sensor is connected to a smartphone via Bluetooth, enabling signal processing and further integration into digital medical electronic systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT). Bending, cyclic pressure, heat, and sweat tests are performed on the sensor to evaluate its performance in simulated real-life harsh conditions.
  • Heterogeneous Cubic Multidimensional Integrated Circuit for Water and Food Security in Fish Farming Ponds.

    Elatab, Nazek; Almansour, Reema; Alhazzany, Alhanouf; Suwaidan, Reema; Alghamdi, Yara; Babatain, Wedyan; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Khan, Sherjeel M; Qaiser, Nadeem; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), Wiley, 2019-12-23) [Article]
    Among major food production sectors, world aquaculture shows the highest growth rate, providing more than 50% of the global seafood market. However, water pollution in fish farming ponds is regarded as the leading cause of fish death and financial losses in the market. Here, an Internet of Things system based on a cubic multidimensional integration of circuit (MD-IC) is demonstrated for water and food security applications in fish farming ponds. Both faces of the silicon substrate are used for thin-film-based device fabrication. The devices are interconnected via through-silicon-vias, resulting in a bifacial complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible electronics system. The demonstrated cubic MD-IC is a complete, small, and lightweight system that can be easily deployed by farmers with no need for specialists. The system integrates on its outer sides simultaneous air and water quality monitoring devices (temperature, electrical conductivity, ammonia, and pH sensors), solar cells for energy-harvesting, and antenna for real-time data-transfer, while data-management circuitry and a solid-state battery are integrated on its internal faces. Microfluidic cooling technology is used for thermal management in the MD-IC. Finally, a biofriendly polymeric encapsulation is used to waterproof the embedded electronics, improve the mechanical robustness, and allow the system to float on the surface of the water.

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