Zhang, Jiaming; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2019-11-28)[Article]
We study the formation of fine radial jets during the impact of a compound drop on a smooth solid surface. The disperse-phase droplets are heavier than the outer continuous phase of the main drop and sink to the bottom of the drop before it is released from the nozzle. The droplets often arrange into a regular pattern around the axis of symmetry. This configuration produces narrow high-speed jets aligned with every internal droplet. These radial jets form during the early impulsive phase of the impact, by local focusing of the outer liquid, which is forced into the narrowing wedge under each internal droplet. The pressure-driven flow forces a thin sheet under and around each droplet, which levitates and separates from the solid surface. Subsequently, surface tension re-forms this horizontal sheet into a cylindrical jet, which is typically as narrow as 35 μ m, while smaller droplets can produce even thinner jets. We systematically change the number of inner droplets and the properties of the main drop to identify the jetting threshold. The jet speed and thickness are minimally affected by the viscosity of the outer liquid, suggesting pure inertial focusing. The jets emerge at around eight times the drop impact velocity. Jetting stops when the density of the inner droplets approaches that of the continuous phase. The interior droplets are often greatly deformed and broken up into satellites by the outer viscous stretching, through capillary pinch-off or tip streaming.
Aguirre-Pablo, A. A.; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman Barakat; Xiong, J.; Idoughi, Ramzi; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Experiments in Fluids, Springer Nature, 2019-01-10)[Article]
We use structured monochromatic volume illumination with spatially varying intensity profiles, to achieve 3D intensity particle tracking velocimetry using a single video camera. The video camera records the 2D motion of a 3D particle field within a fluid, which is perpendicularly illuminated with depth gradients of the illumination intensity. This allows us to encode the depth position perpendicular to the camera, in the intensity of each particle image. The light intensity field is calibrated using a 3D laser-engraved glass cube containing a known spatial distribution of 1100 defects. This is used to correct for the distortions and divergence of the projected light. We use a sequence of changing light patterns, with numerous sub-gradients in the intensity, to achieve a resolution of 200 depth levels.
Li, Erqiang; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Marston, Jeremy; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018-06-13)[Article]
When a drop impacts on a liquid surface its bottom is deformed by lubrication pressure and it entraps a thin disc of air, thereby making contact along a ring at a finite distance from the centreline. The outer edge of this contact moves radially at high speed, governed by the impact velocity and bottom radius of the drop. Then at a certain radial location an ejecta sheet emerges from the neck connecting the two liquid masses. Herein, we show the formation of an azimuthal instability at the base of this ejecta, in the sharp corners at the two sides of the ejecta. They promote regular radial vorticity, thereby breaking the axisymmetry of the motions on the finest scales. The azimuthal wavenumber grows with the impact Weber number, based on the bottom curvature of the drop, reaching over 400 streamwise streaks around the periphery. This instability occurs first at Reynolds numbers of ∼7000, but for larger is overtaken by the subsequent axisymmetric vortex shedding and their interactions can form intricate tangles, loops or chains.
Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Takehara, K.; Nguyen, H. D.; Etoh, T. G.(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018-06-13)[Article]
When a drop impacts on a deep pool at moderate velocity it forms a hemispheric crater which subsequently rebounds to the original free-surface level, often forming Worthington jets, which rise vertically out of the crater centre. Under certain impact conditions the crater collapse forms a dimple at its bottom, which pinches off a bubble and is also known to be associated with the formation of a very fast thin jet. Herein we use two ultra-high-speed video cameras to observe simultaneously the dimple collapse and the speed of the resulting jet. The fastest fine jets are observed at speeds of approximately (Formula presented.) and emerge when the dimple forms a cylinder which retracts without pinching off a bubble. We also identify what appears to be micro-bubbles at the bottom of this cylinder, which we propose are caused by local cavitation from extensional stress in the flow entering the jet. The radial collapse of the dimple does not follow capillary-inertial power laws nor is its bottom driven by a curvature singularity, as has been proposed in some earlier studies. The fastest jets are produced by pure inertial focusing and emerge at finite dimple size, bypassing the pinch-off singularity. These jets emerge from the liquid contained originally in the drop. Finally, we measure directly the compression of the central bubble following the pinch-off and the subsequent large volume oscillation, which occurs at frequencies slightly above the audible range at approximately 23 kHz.
Aljedaani, Abdulrahman Barakat; Wang, Chunliang; Jetly, Aditya; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2018-04-04)[Article]
We investigate experimentally the breakup of the Edgerton crown due to Marangoni instability when a highly viscous drop impacts on a thin film of lower-viscosity liquid, which also has different surface tension than the drop liquid. The presence of this low-viscosity film modifies the boundary condition, giving effective slip to the drop along the solid substrate. This allows the high-viscosity drop to form a regular bowl-shaped crown, which rises vertically away from the solid and subsequently breaks up through the formation of a multitude of Marangoni holes. Previous experiments have proposed that the breakup of the crown results from a spray of fine droplets ejected from the thin low-viscosity film on the solid, e.g. Thoroddsen et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 557, 2006, pp. 63–72). These droplets can hit the inner side of the crown forming spots with lower surface tension, which drives a thinning patch leading to the hole formation. We test the validity of this assumption with close-up imaging to identify individual spray droplets, to show how they hit the crown and their lower surface tension drive the hole formation. The experiments indicate that every Marangoni-driven patch/hole is promoted by the impact of such a microdroplet. Surprisingly, in experiments with pools of higher surface tension, we also see hole formation. Here the Marangoni stress changes direction and the hole formation looks qualitatively different, with holes and ruptures forming in a repeatable fashion at the centre of each spray droplet impact. Impacts onto films of the same liquid, or onto an immiscible liquid, do not in general form holes. We furthermore characterize the effects of drop viscosity and substrate-film thickness on the overall evolution of the crown. We also measure the three characteristic velocities associated with the hole formation: i.e. the Marangoni-driven growth of the thinning patches, the rupture speed of the resulting thin films inside these patches and finally the growth rate of the fully formed holes in the crown wall.
Langley, Kenneth; Li, Erqiang; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Soft Matter, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2018)[Article]
We study the impact of drops onto a flat surface with a nano-particle-based superhydrophobic coating, focusing on the earliest contact using 200 ns time-resolution. A central air-disc is entrapped when the drop impacts the surface, and when the roughness is appropriately accounted for, the height and radial extent of the air-disc follow the scaling laws established for impacts onto smooth surfaces. The roughness also modifies the first contact of the drop around the central air-disc, producing a thick band of micro-bubbles. The initial bubbles within this band coalesce and grow in size. We also infer the presence of an air-film residing inside the microstructure, at radial distances outside the central air-disc. This is manifest by the sudden appearance of microbubbles within a few microseconds after impact. The central air-disc remains pinned on the roughness, unless it is chemically altered to make it superhydrophilic.
Li, Erqiang; Langley, Kenneth; Tian, Yuan Si; Hicks, Peter D.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Physical Review Letters, American Physical Society (APS), 2017-11-20)[Article]
Drops impacting on solid surfaces entrap small bubbles under their centers, owing to the lubrication pressure which builds up in the thin intervening air layer. We use ultrahigh-speed interference imaging, at 5 Mfps, to investigate how this air layer changes when the ambient air pressure is reduced below atmospheric. Both the radius and the thickness of the air disc become smaller with reduced air pressure. Furthermore, we find the radial extent of the air disc bifurcates, when the compressibility parameter exceeds similar to 25. This bifurcation is also imprinted onto some of the impacts, as a double contact. In addition to the central air disc inside the first ring contact, this is immediately followed by a second ring contact, which entraps an outer toroidal strip of air, which contracts into a ring of bubbles. We find this occurs in a regime where Navier slip, due to rarefied gas effects, enhances the rate gas can escape from the path of the droplet.
Mansoor, Mohammad M.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, J. O.; Truscott, T. T.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2017-06-23)[Article]
We report results from an experimental study on the formation of stable–streamlined and helical cavity wakes following the free-surface impact of Leidenfrost spheres. Similar to the observations of Mansoor et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 743, 2014, pp. 295–326), we show that acoustic ripples form along the interface of elongated cavities entrained in the presence of wall effects as soon as the primary cavity pinch-off takes place. The crests of these ripples can act as favourable points for closure, producing multiple acoustic pinch-offs, which are found to occur in an acoustic pinch-off cascade. We show that these ripples pacify with time in the absence of physical contact between the sphere and the liquid, leading to extremely smooth cavity wake profiles. More importantly, the downward-facing jet at the apex of the cavity is continually suppressed due to a skin-friction drag effect at the colliding cavity-wall junction, which ultimately produces a stable–streamlined cavity wake. This streamlined configuration is found to experience drag coefficients an order of a magnitude lower than those acting on room-temperature spheres. A striking observation is the formation of helical cavities which occur for impact Reynolds numbers and are characterized by multiple interfacial ridges, stemming from and rotating synchronously about an evident contact line around the sphere equator. The contact line is shown to result from the degeneration of Kelvin–Helmholtz billows into turbulence which are observed forming along the liquid–vapour interface around the bottom hemisphere of the sphere. Using sphere trajectory measurements, we show that this helical cavity wake configuration has 40 %–55 % smaller force coefficients than those obtained in the formation of stable cavity wakes.
Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Alarfaj, Meshal K.; Li, Erqiang; Hernandez Sanchez, Jose Federico; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T(Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, 2017-06-12)[Article]
We demonstrate the viability of using four low-cost smartphone cameras to perform Tomographic PIV. We use colored shadows to imprint two or three different time-steps on the same image. The back-lighting is accomplished with three sets of differently-colored pulsed LEDs. Each set of Red, Green & Blue LEDs is shone on a diffuser screen facing each of the cameras. We thereby record the RGB-colored shadows of opaque suspended particles, rather than the conventionally used scattered light. We subsequently separate the RGB color channels, to represent the separate times, with preprocessing to minimize noise and cross-talk. We use commercially available Tomo-PIV software for the calibration, 3-D particle reconstruction and particle-field correlations, to obtain all three velocity components in a volume. Acceleration estimations can be done thanks to the triple pulse illumination. Our test flow is a vortex ring produced by forcing flow through a circular orifice, using a flexible membrane, which is driven by a pressurized air pulse. Our system is compared to a commercial stereoscopic PIV system for error estimations. We believe this proof of concept experiment will make this technique available for education, industry and scientists for a fraction of the hardware cost needed for traditional Tomo-PIV.
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