Due to their physical and chemical properties, alcohols such as ethanol and methanol when blended with gasoline provide high anti-knock quality and hence efficient engines. However, there are few promising properties of 1-butanol similar to conventional gasoline which make it a favorable choice for internal combustion engines. Previously the author showed that by blending ethanol and methanol with low octane fuels, non-linear increase in the HCCI fuel number occurs in HCCI combustion mode. Very few studies have been conducted on the use of 1-butanol in HCCI combustion mode, therefore for this work, 1-butanol with a RON 96 was selected as the high octane fuel. Three low octane fuels with octane number close to 70 were used as a base fuel. Two of the low octane fuels are Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE gasolines), more specifically FACE I and FACE J and also primary reference fuel (PRF 70) were selected. In addition, iso-octane, which has a different chemical structure than 1-butanol but an octane number (100) close to 1-butanol, was also selected as high octane fuel. A Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine was used to conduct the experiments in HCCI combustion mode. HCCI fuel number was used for the octane rating similar to RON and MON in SI engine. 1-butanol and iso-octane were added in volume percentage 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% to each of the base fuels. It was found that the increase of HCCI fuel number of 1-butanol was not linear with percentage added. For most of the operating conditions, non-linear synergistic blending behavior was observed when 1-butanol was blended with the three base fuels. The base fuel composition played a significant role for the blending octane number of 1-butanol. A weaker octane enhancement effect was observed when iso-octane was blended with the three base fuels.
Singh, Eshan; Jaasim, Mohammed; Ichim, Adrian; Morganti, Kai; Dibble, Robert W.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
Stochastic pre-ignition remains one of the major barriers limiting further engine downsizing and down-speeding; two widely used strategies for improving the efficiency of spark-ignited engines. One of the most cited mechanisms thought to be responsible for pre-ignition is the ignition of a rogue droplet composed of lubricant oil and fuel. This originates during mixture formation from interactions between the fuel spray and oil on the cylinder liner. In the present study, this hypothesis is further examined using a single cylinder supercharged engine which employs a range of air-fuel mixture formation strategies. These strategies include port-fuel injection (PFI) along with side and central direct injection (DI) of an E5 gasoline (RON 97.5) using single and multiple injection events. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations are then used to explain the observed trends. Overall, this study reinforces that interactions between the fuel spray and oil on the cylinder liner can be an important contributor towards stochastic pre-ignition. The occurrence of pre-ignition, as shown by CFD calculations, is successful after completion of two stages. The first stage involves the formation of precursors from interactions between the fuel spray and oil on the cylinder liner. This is shown to be dependent upon the mass of the fuel impinging on the cylinder liner. The second stage involves the ignition of the precursor, which is shown to be dependent upon the temperature of the air-fuel mixture near top dead center.
Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) experiments were run with the aid of a Cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine, operating at 600 rpm and under very lean conditions (χ = 0.3). This study seeks to examine the combustion behavior of different fuels by finding the pressure-temperature (p-t) conditions that instigate the start of combustion, and the transition from low temperature combustion to principal combustion. The pressure-temperature diagram emphasizes p-t conditions according to their traces through the compression stroke. In each fuel tested, p-t traces were examined by a sweep of the intake temperature; and for each experimental point, combustion phasing was maintained at top dead center by adjusting the compression ratio of the engine. In addition to the p-t diagram, results were analyzed using a compression ratio-intake temperature diagram, which showed the compression ratio required with respect to intake temperature. Pure n-heptane, isooctane and toluene were investigated first. The results showed that these three fuels ignited in accordance with their octane number. The compression ratio-intake temperature diagram shows that the compression ratio decreased linearly with increased intake temperature. The p-t diagram reveals that the combustion of n-heptane always reacted with low temperature heat release, while toluene always reacted with one main combustion. However, isooctane behavior is subject to change. Isooctane combustion displayed two stages of combustion with low intake temperature, but when intake temperature increased, the low temperature heat release disappeared and only the main combustion remained. Finally, ignition delays computed from a constant volume model were compared to experimental ignitions; the results suggested that another model was required. Second, an octane number 90 primary reference fuel (PRF90) with different volume fractions of toluene was investigated. Results in the compression ratio-intake temperature showed that the compression ratio decreased linearly, while the intake temperature increased for PRF90 without toluene. When low fractions of toluene were added to PRF90 (from 5% to 30%), higher compression ratios were required and the trend became non-linear. A slight change in the compression ratio at low intake temperature was observed; while a greater change in the compression ratio at high intake temperature was required due to the presence of low temperature combustion. Finally, high fractions of toluene (higher than 40%) quenched the low temperature combustion and linear behavior was again achieved. The pressure temperature diagram also shows similar trends, with a transition of the low temperature combustion which moved in accordance with the fraction of toluene in PRF90.
An, Yanzhao; Jaasim, Mohammed; Vallinayagam, R; AlRamadan, Abdullah; Sim, Jaeheon; Chang, Junseok; Im, Hong G.; Johansson, Bengt(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is an operating mode that lies between the conventional compression ignition (CI) mode and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. The combustion in this mixed mode is complex as it is neither diffusion-controlled (CI mode) nor governed solely by chemical kinetics (HCCI mode). In this study, CFD simulations were performed to evaluate flame index, which distinguishes between zones having a premixed flame and non-premixed flame. Experiments performed in the optical engine supplied data to validate the model. In order to realize PPC, the start of injection (SOI) was fixed at -40 CAD (aTDC) so that a required ignition delay is created to premix air/fuel mixture. The reference operating point was selected to be with 3 bar IMEP and 1200 rpm. Naphtha with a RON of 77 and its corresponding PRF surrogate were tested. The simulations captured the general trends observed in the experiments well. The flame index was noted to be an indicator to evaluate and quantify the in-cylinder combustion development under PPC engine operating condition. The evolution of premixed flames shows the same two-stage ignition behavior as the rate of heat release. Premixed flames are surrounded by the non-premixed fuel/air mixtures and distribute in the piston top-land region as isolated clouds. The proportion of premixed flames increases from low temperature heat release (LTHR) region first and decreases in negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region then increases to high temperature heat release (HTHR) region at PPC mode.
Zhou, Qiyan; Jaasim, Mohammed; Mohan, Balaji; Lu, Xing-Cai; Im, Hong G.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
The purpose of present numerical study was to extend the operating range of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine under low load conditions. Ignition of pure methanol and ethanol under HCCI mode of operation requires high intake temperatures and misfires at low loads are common in HCCI engines. Three methods have been adapted to optimize the use of methanol and ethanol for HCCI operation without increasing the intake temperature. First, blending methanol and ethanol with ignition improver, namely di-methyl ether (DME) and di-ethyl ether (DEE), was used to increase the cetane number and ignitability of premixed charge. Second, based on the blended fuels, the spark assistance was used to reduce required intake temperature for auto-ignition. Third, DME and DEE were directly injected to methanol and ethanol operated HCCI engine, in the form of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. Negligible improvement in reducing intake temperature was observed in spark-assisted HCCI combustion due to the slow flame propagation speed under the lean premixed condition with blended fuels. In all three methods, it was found that RCCI combustion was more effective at reducing the required intake temperature compared to HCCI and spark assisted combustion, in spite of the fact that they are operated at same lambda (3.3) operating conditions.
Singh, Eshan; Dibble, Robert W.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
Knock, and more recently, super-knock, have been limiting factors on improving engine efficiency. As a result, engines often operate rich at high loads to avoid damage resulting from knock and protect the after-treatment system from excessive thermal stress. In this work, port-fuel injection and direct injection of excess fuel is explored as a mechanism to suppress knock and super-knock. Under naturally aspirated conditions, increasing the fuel enrichment initially increases knock intensity. However, further increasing fuel enrichment subsequently decreases knock intensity. The competing mechanism from calorific value and latent heat of vaporization can be used to explain the phenomenon. However, when directly injecting the excess fuel after the spark plug has been fired, knock intensity monotonically decreases with increasing fuel quantity. This decrease is shown to be due to fuel quenching the flame that is propagating from spark location. Under boosted conditions, the amount of fuel injected is of critical importance in avoiding super-knock. A lower fuel quantity leads to knock suppression. But beyond a critical value, higher quantities of fuel result in more interaction with the oil film on the cylinder liner, leading to a greater number of pre-ignition precursors (fuel + oil droplets) and a higher number of pre-ignition events. These spontaneous pre-ignition events arising from fuel enrichment are further advanced and do not lead to super-knock behavior due to high amounts of charge cooling from evaporation of the excess fuel. Furthermore, such spontaneous pre-ignition events are characterized by higher pressure in the intake stroke and dominance of higher frequency oscillations in the cylinder.
Maharjan, Sumit; Qahtani, Yasser; Roberts, William L.; Elbaz, Ayman M.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
Numerous studies have attributed pre-ignition events in turbocharged spark ignited engines to the auto-ignition of lubricant oil-fuel mixture droplets. These droplets result from the interaction of the directly injected fuel spray on the lubricant oil film on the cylinder walls, causing fuel splashing to pull oil off the walls, forming droplets. The dilution of the oil by the fuel also changes lubricant oil droplet properties. Therefore, it is important to understand lubricating oils, with and without fuel dilution, as a possible ignition source in pre-ignition and super knock events. In this work, a constant volume (4 L) combustion chamber (CVCC) that allows the introduction of a single droplet of lubricating oil has been built. It is capable of operation at elevated pressures and temperatures. To simulate the droplet-induced pre-ignition event, a droplet injection system was incorporated into the vessel. The oil droplet was suspended on the junction of a thermocouple where the instantaneous internal droplet temperature was measured throughout the oil droplet lifetime. The experiments were carried out in an air atmosphere heated to 300 °C. The ambient pressure was varied from 2-15 bar. In the present work, the effect of pressure on droplet ignition of conventional engine oil (SAE 15 W-40), its surrogate hexadecane (CH), and hexadecane mixed with lubricant oil additives has been investigated to understand the fundamental physics of droplet-induced ignition. The objective of this study is to determine the probability that an oil droplet will ignite at temperatures and pressures relevant to modern turbocharged GDI engines.
Luo, Yueqi; Jaasim, Mohammed; Huang, Zhen; Im, Hong G.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
Ignition quality tester (IQT) is a standard experimental device to determine ignition delay time of liquid fuels in a controlled environment in the absence of gas exchange. The process involves fuel injection, spray breakup, evaporation and mixing, which is followed by auto-ignition. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used for prediction of auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol. In particular, the sensitivity of the ignition behavior to different injection rate profiles is investigated. Fluctuant rate profile derived from needle lift data from experiments performs better than square rate profile in ignition delay predictions. DEE, when used with fluctuant injection rate profile resulted in faster ignition, while for ethanol the situation was reversed. The contrasting results are attributed to the difference in local mixing. The fluctuant injection profile yields larger spray velocity variations promoting fuel evaporation and local turbulent mixing. The suitable ignition conditions were reached earlier for DEE with fluctuant injection profile, whereas ethanol exhibits pseudo-homogeneous mixing due to its lower cetane number. Ignition was faster for square rate profile due to ignition in end tube for ethanol. The fluctuant injection leads to a better homogeneity for ethanol due to longer time available for mixing. The nature of heat release rate, auto-ignition and combustion were altered by the fluctuant injection rate profile when compared to square rate injection profile.
Jaasim, Mohammed; Luong, Minh Bau; Sow, Aliou; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Im, Hong G.(SAE Technical Paper Series, SAE International, 2018-09-10)[Conference Paper]
This study presents a computational framework to predict the outcome of combustion process based on a given RANS initial condition by performing statistical analysis of Sankaran number, Sa, and ignition regime theory proposed by Im et al. . A criterion to predict strong auto-ignition/detonation a priori is used in this study, which is based on Sankaran-Zeldovich criterion. In the context of detonation, Sa is normalized by a sound speed, and is spatially calculated for the bulk mixture with temperature and equivalence ratio stratifications. The initial conditions from previous pre-ignition simulations were used to compute the spatial Sa distribution followed by the statistics of Sa including the mean Sa, the probability density function (PDF) of Sa, and the detonation probability, P. Sa is found to be decreased and detonation probability increased significantly with increase of temperature. The statistic mean Sa calculated for the entire computational domain and the predicted Sa from the theory were found to be nearly identical. The predictions based on the adapted Sankaran-Zel'dovich criterion and detonation probability agree well with the results of the previous high fidelity pre-ignition simulations.
Direct injection compression ignition engines running on gasoline-like fuels have been considered an attractive alternative to traditional spark ignition and diesel engines. The compression and lean combustion mode eliminates throttle losses yielding higher thermodynamic efficiencies and the better mixing of fuel/air due to the longer ignition delay times of the gasoline-like fuels allows better emission performance such as nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). These gasoline-like fuels which usually have lower octane compared to market gasoline have been identified as a viable option for the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine applications due to its lower reactivity and lighter evaporation compared to diesel. The properties, specifications and sources of these GCI fuels are not fully understood yet because this technology is relatively new. In this work, a GCI fuel matrix is being developed based on the significance of certain physical and chemical properties in GCI engine operation. Those properties were chosen to be density, temperature at 90 volume % evaporation (T90) or final boiling point (FBP) and research octane number (RON) and the ranges of these properties were determined from the data reported in literature. These proposed fuels were theoretically formulated, while applying realistic constraints, using species present in real refinery streams. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed using the proposed GCI fuels and the similarities and differences were highlighted.
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