Cheng, Wan; Pullin, D. I.; Samtaney, Ravi; Zhang, W.; Gao, Wei(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2017-05-05)[Article]
We present wall-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of flow over a smooth-wall circular cylinder up to , where is Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and the free-stream speed . The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used in the entire simulation domain. For the sub-critical regime, six cases are implemented with . Results are compared with experimental data for both the wall-pressure-coefficient distribution on the cylinder surface, which dominates the drag coefficient, and the skin-friction coefficient, which clearly correlates with the separation behaviour. In the super-critical regime, LES for three values of are carried out at different resolutions. The drag-crisis phenomenon is well captured. For lower resolution, numerical discretization fluctuations are sufficient to stimulate transition, while for higher resolution, an applied boundary-layer perturbation is found to be necessary to stimulate transition. Large-eddy simulation results at , with a mesh of , agree well with the classic experimental measurements of Achenbach (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 34, 1968, pp. 625-639) especially for the skin-friction coefficient, where a spike is produced by the laminar-turbulent transition on the top of a prior separation bubble. We document the properties of the attached-flow boundary layer on the cylinder surface as these vary with . Within the separated portion of the flow, mean-flow separation-reattachment bubbles are observed at some values of , with separation characteristics that are consistent with experimental observations. Time sequences of instantaneous surface portraits of vector skin-friction trajectory fields indicate that the unsteady counterpart of a mean-flow separation-reattachment bubble corresponds to the formation of local flow-reattachment cells, visible as coherent bundles of diverging surface streamlines.
Gao, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Wan; Samtaney, Ravi(Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, 2019-06-24)[Article]
We present large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow past different airfoils with, based on the free-stream velocity and airfoil chord length, ranging from to. To avoid the challenging resolution requirements of the near-wall region, we develop a virtual wall model in generalized curvilinear coordinates and incorporate the non-equilibrium effects via proper treatment of the momentum equations. It is demonstrated that the wall model dynamically captures the instantaneous skin-friction vector field on arbitrary curved surfaces at the resolved scale. By combining the present wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model, we apply the wall-modelled LES approach to three different airfoil cases, spanning different geometrical parameters, different attack angles and low to high. The numerical results are verified with direct numerical simulation (DNS) at low, and validated with experiment data at higher, including typical aerodynamic properties such as pressure coefficient distributions, velocity components and also more challenging measurements such as skin-friction coefficient and Reynolds stresses. All comparisons show reasonable agreement, providing a measure of validity that enables us to further probe simulation results into aspects of flow physics that are not available from experiments. Two techniques to quantify hitherto unexplored physics of flows past airfoils are employed: one is the construction of the anisotropy invariant map, and the second is skin-friction portraits with emphasis on flow transition and unsteady separation along the airfoil surface. The anisotropy maps for all three cases, show clearly that a portion of the flow field is aligned along the axisymmetric expansion line, corresponding to the turbulent boundary layer log-law behaviour and the appearance of turbulent transition. The instantaneous skin-friction portraits reveal a monotonic shrinking of the near wall structure scale. At, the interaction between the primary separation bubble and the secondary separation bubble contributes to turbulent transition, similar to the case of flow past a cylinder. At higher, the primary separation breaks into several small separation bubbles. At even higher, near the turbulent separation, the skin-friction lines show small-scale reversal flows that are similar to those observed in DNS of the flat plate turbulent separation. A notable feature of turbulent separation in flow past an airfoil is the appearance of turbulence structures and small-scale reversal flows in the spanwise direction due to the vortex shedding behaviour.
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