A simple approach that enables a consistent enhancement of the electron extracting properties of the widely used small-molecule Phen-NaDPO and its application in organic solar cells (OSCs) is reported. It is shown that addition of minute amounts of the inorganic molecule Sn(SCN)2 into Phen-NaDPO improves both the electron transport and its film-forming properties. Use of Phen-NaDPO:Sn(SCN)2 blend as the electron transport layer (ETL) in binary PM6:IT-4F OSCs leads to a remarkable increase in the cells' power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 12.6% (Phen-NaDPO) to 13.5% (Phen-NaDPO:Sn(SCN)2). Combining the hybrid ETL with the best-in-class organic ternary PM6:Y6:PC70BM systems results to a similarly remarkable PCE increase from 14.2% (Phen-NaDPO) to 15.6% (Phen-NaDPO:Sn(SCN)2). The consistent PCE enhancement is attributed to reduced trap-assisted carrier recombination at the bulk-heterojunction/ETL interface due to the presence of new energy states formed upon chemical interaction of Phen-NaDPO with Sn(SCN)2. The versatility of this hybrid ETL is further demonstrated with its application in perovskite solar cells for which an increase in the PCE from 16.6% to 18.2% is also demonstrated.
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