Wu, X.; Fang, Z.; Li, Kun; Bosman, M.; Raghavan, N.; Li, X.; Yu, H. Y.; Singh, N.; Lo, G. Q.; Zhang, Xixiang; Pey, K. L.(Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2011-09-29)[Article]
We demonstrate the realization of a forming-step free resistive random access memory (RRAM) device using a HfOx/TiOx/HfOx/TiOxmultilayer structure, as a replacement for the conventional HfOx-based single layer structure. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), along with electron energy loss spectroscopy(EELS)analysis has been carried out to identify the distribution and the role played by Ti in the RRAM stack. Our results show that Ti out-diffusion into the HfOx layer is the chemical cause of forming-free behavior. Moreover, the capability of Ti to change its ionic state in HfOx eases the reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction, thus lead to the RRAM devices performance improvements.
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