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dc.contributor.authorEl Kenawy, Ahmed M.
dc.contributor.authorMcCabe, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorStenchikov, Georgiy L.
dc.contributor.authorRaj, Jerry
dc.date.accessioned2014-12-07T14:09:44Z
dc.date.available2014-12-07T14:09:44Z
dc.date.issued2014-09-15
dc.identifier.citationEl Kenawy AM, McCabe MF, Stenchikov GL and Raj J (2014) Multi-decadal classification of synoptic weather types, observed trends and links to rainfall characteristics over Saudi Arabia. Front. Environ. Sci. 2:37. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00037
dc.identifier.issn2296-665X
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fenvs.2014.00037
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/336792
dc.description.abstractAn automated version of the Lamb weather type classification scheme was employed to characterize daily circulation conditions in Saudi Arabia from 1960 to 2005. Daily gridded fields of sea level pressure (SLP) from both the NCEP/NCAR and the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysis data (ERA40) were used as input data for this classification. The output catalog included 10 basic types, which describe the direction and vorticity of airflow in the region (i.e., cyclonic, anti-cyclonic, and directional). In general, our findings indicate that cyclonic (C) days represent the most frequent type among all days, with 69.2% of the annual count of days from 1960 to 2005, followed by SE directional flows (21%). It was also determined that airflows originating from the Indian Ocean (i.e., S, SE, and E) are more frequent than those from the Mediterranean and Red Seas (i.e., W, NW, and SW). The defined weather types were assessed for the presence of inter-annual and intra-annual trends using the Mann–Kendall tau statistic. The trend analysis suggests statistically significant changes in the frequencies of a majority of the weather types from 1960 to 2005. The relationship between the daily occurrence of rainfall and the frequency of individual weather types was also described using daily rainfall data from a network of 87 weather observatories. Results demonstrate that increasing frequencies of weather types connected to easterly inflows support higher precipitation amounts over the study domain. Characterizing the association between atmospheric circulation patterns and rainfall in Saudi Arabia is important for understanding potential impacts related to climate variability and also for developing circulation-based downscaling methods.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SA
dc.relation.urlhttp://journal.frontiersin.org/journal/10.3389/fenvs.2014.00037/full
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.subjectweather types
dc.subjectdirectional flows
dc.subjectdaily rainfall
dc.subjectcirculation patterns
dc.subjectextremes
dc.subjectSaudi Arabia
dc.titleMulti-decadal classification of synoptic weather types, observed trends and links to rainfall characteristics over Saudi Arabia
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentEarth Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentEarth System Observation and Modelling
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Program
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Science and Engineering (PSE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Environmental Science
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Geography, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personEl Kenawy, Ahmed M.
kaust.personMcCabe, Matthew
kaust.personStenchikov, Georgiy L.
kaust.personRaj, Jerry
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T16:04:26Z


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