KAUST DepartmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
Environmental Science and Engineering Program
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Permanent link to this recordhttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/334614
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AbstractThe paper provides a critical overview of water desalination using geothermal resources. Specific case studies are presented, as well as an assessment of environmental risks and market potential and barriers to growth. The availability and suitability of low and high temperature geothermal energy in comparison to other renewable energy resources for desalination is also discussed. Analysis will show, for example, that the use of geothermal energy for thermal desalination can be justified only in the presence of cheap geothermal reservoirs or in decentralized applications focusing on small-scale water supplies in coastal regions, provided that society is able and willing to pay for desalting. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
CitationGoosen M, Mahmoudi H, Ghaffour N (2010) Water Desalination Using Geothermal Energy. Energies 3: 1423-1442. doi:10.3390/en3081423.
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Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water ReuseWerner, Craig M. (2014-06) [Dissertation]
Advisor: Amy, Gary L.
Committee members: Eppinger, Jörg; Logan, Bruce; Saikaly, Pascal E.Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater treatment process. The anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor described here integrates a microbial electrolysis cell with a membrane bioreactor using conductive hollow fiber membrane to produce hydrogen gas, treat wastewater and reclaim treated water. The energy recovered as hydrogen gas in this system was sufficient to offset all the electrical energy requirements for operation. The findings from these studies significantly improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment, energy recovery and water reclamation in a single reactor but challenges such as membrane biofouling and conversion of hydrogen to methane by methanogenesis require further study.
Liquid-FEP-based U-tube triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-wave energyPan, Lun; Wang, Jiyu; Wang, Peihong; Gao, Ruijie; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Xiangwen; Zou, Ji-Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin (Nano Research, Springer Nature, 2018-02-09) [Article]Harvesting ambient mechanical energy is a key technology for realizing self-powered electronics. With advantages of stability and durability, a liquid–solid-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) has recently drawn much attention. However, the impacts of liquid properties on the TENG performance and the related working principle are still unclear. We assembled herein a U-tube TENG based on the liquid–solid mode and applied 11 liquids to study the effects of liquid properties on the TENG output performance. The results confirmed that the key factors influencing the output are polarity, dielectric constant, and affinity to fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP). Among the 11 liquids, the pure water-based U-tube TENG exhibited the best output with an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 81.7 V and a short-circuit current (Isc) of 0.26 μA for the shaking mode (0.5 Hz), which can further increase to 93.0 V and 0.48 μA, respectively, for the horizontal shifting mode (1.25 Hz). The U-tube TENG can be utilized as a self-powered concentration sensor (component concentration or metalion concentration) for an aqueous solution with an accuracy higher than 92%. Finally, an upgraded sandwich-like water-FEP U-tube TENG was applied to harvest water-wave energy, showing a high output with Voc of 350 V, Isc of 1.75 μA, and power density of 2.04 W/m3. We successfully lighted up 60 LEDs and powered a temperature–humidity meter. Given its high output performance, the water-FEP U-tube TENG is a very promising approach for harvesting water-wave energy for self-powered electronics.
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