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dc.contributor.authorMissimer, T.M.
dc.contributor.authorMaliva, R.G.
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, NorEddine
dc.contributor.authorLeiknes, TorOve
dc.contributor.authorAmy, Gary L.
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-11T14:29:29Z
dc.date.available2014-11-11T14:29:29Z
dc.date.issued2014-08-07
dc.identifier.citationMissimer T, Maliva R, Ghaffour N, Leiknes T, Amy G (2014) Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) Economics for Wastewater Reuse in Low Population Wadi Communities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Water 6: 2322-2338. doi:10.3390/w6082322.
dc.identifier.issn20734441
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/w6082322
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/334555
dc.description.abstractDepletion of water supplies for potable and irrigation use is a major problem in the rural wadi valleys of Saudi Arabia and other areas of the Middle East and North Africa. An economic analysis of supplying these villages with either desalinated seawater or treated wastewater conveyed via a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) system was conducted. In many cases, there are no local sources of water supply of any quality in the wadi valleys. The cost per cubic meter for supplying desalinated water is $2-5/m3 plus conveyance cost, and treated wastewater via an MAR system is $0-0.50/m3 plus conveyance cost. The wastewater reuse, indirect for potable use and direct use for irrigation, can have a zero treatment cost because it is discharged to waste in many locations. In fact, the economic loss caused by the wastewater discharge to the marine environment can be greater than the overall amortized cost to construct an MAR system, including conveyance pipelines and the operational costs of reuse in the rural environment. The MAR and associated reuse system can solve the rural water supply problem in the wadi valleys and reduce the economic losses caused by marine pollution, particularly coral reef destruction. 2014 by the authors.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Water (Switzerland)
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectArid lands
dc.subjectDesalination
dc.subjectManaged aquifer recharge
dc.subjectWadi aquifers
dc.subjectWastewater reuse
dc.subjectWater economics
dc.subjectAquifers
dc.subjectCosts
dc.subjectEconomic analysis
dc.subjectHydrogeology
dc.subjectIrrigation
dc.subjectLandforms
dc.subjectLosses
dc.subjectMarine pollution
dc.subjectRecharging (underground waters)
dc.subjectRural areas
dc.subjectWastewater treatment
dc.subjectWater conservation
dc.subjectWater filtration
dc.subjectWater supply
dc.subjectKingdom of Saudi Arabia
dc.subjectManaged aquifer recharges
dc.subjectMarine environment
dc.subjectMiddle East and North Africa
dc.subjectRural water supply
dc.subjectWastewater discharge
dc.subjectWastewater reclamation
dc.subjectaquifer
dc.subjectarid region
dc.subjectcost-benefit analysis
dc.subjectdesalination
dc.subjectdrinking water
dc.subjectgroundwater resource
dc.subjectpollution control
dc.subjectrecharge
dc.subjectrecycling
dc.subjectrural area
dc.subjectwastewater
dc.subjectwater economics
dc.subjectwater management
dc.subjectwater supply
dc.subjectSaudi Arabia
dc.subjectAnthozoa
dc.titleManaged aquifer recharge (MAR) economics for wastewater reuse in low population wadi communities, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalWater
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionU.A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Boulevard South, Fort Myers, FL 33965-6565, United States
dc.contributor.institutionSchlumberger Water Services, 1567 Hayley Lane, Suite 202, Fort Myers, FL 33907, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personGhaffour, NorEddine
kaust.personLeiknes, TorOve
kaust.personAmy, Gary L.
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-14T04:37:55Z


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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.