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dc.contributor.authorJackson, Andrew P.
dc.contributor.authorOtto, Thomas D.
dc.contributor.authorDarby, Alistair
dc.contributor.authorRamaprasad, Abhinay
dc.contributor.authorXia, Dong
dc.contributor.authorEchaide, Ignacio Eduardo
dc.contributor.authorFarber, Marisa
dc.contributor.authorGahlot, Sunayna
dc.contributor.authorGamble, John
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Dinesh
dc.contributor.authorGupta, Yask
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Louise
dc.contributor.authorMalandrin, Laurence
dc.contributor.authorMalas, Tareq B.
dc.contributor.authorMoussa, Ehab
dc.contributor.authorNair, Mridul
dc.contributor.authorReid, Adam J.
dc.contributor.authorSanders, Mandy
dc.contributor.authorSharma, Jyotsna
dc.contributor.authorTracey, Alan
dc.contributor.authorQuail, Mike A.
dc.contributor.authorWeir, William
dc.contributor.authorWastling, Jonathan M.
dc.contributor.authorHall, Neil
dc.contributor.authorWilladsen, Peter
dc.contributor.authorLingelbach, Klaus
dc.contributor.authorShiels, Brian
dc.contributor.authorTait, Andy
dc.contributor.authorBerriman, Matt
dc.contributor.authorAllred, David R.
dc.contributor.authorPain, Arnab
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:52:10Z
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:52:10Z
dc.date.issued2014-05-05
dc.identifier.citationJackson AP, Otto TD, Darby A, Ramaprasad A, Xia D, et al. (2014) The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction. Nucleic Acids Research 42: 7113-7131. doi:10.1093/nar/gku322.
dc.identifier.issn13624962
dc.identifier.pmid24799432
dc.identifier.doi10.1093/nar/gku322
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325457
dc.description.abstractBabesia spp. are tick-borne, intraerythrocytic hemoparasites that use antigenic variation to resist host immunity, through sequential modification of the parasite-derived variant erythrocyte surface antigen (VESA) expressed on the infected red blood cell surface. We identified the genomic processes driving antigenic diversity in genes encoding VESA (ves1) through comparative analysis within and between three Babesia species, (B. bigemina, B. divergens and B. bovis). Ves1 structure diverges rapidly after speciation, notably through the evolution of shortened forms (ves2) from 5? ends of canonical ves1 genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that ves1 genes are transposed between loci routinely, whereas ves2 genes are not. Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families. Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family. Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct. 2014 The Author(s) 2014.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherOxford University Press (OUP)
dc.rightsThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectmembrane antigen
dc.subjectunclassified drug
dc.subjectvariant erythrocyte surface antigen 1
dc.subjectvariant erythrocyte surface antigen 2
dc.subjectantigenic variation
dc.subjectBabesia
dc.subjectBabesia bigemina
dc.subjectBabesia bovis
dc.subjectBabesia divergens
dc.subjectcomparative study
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectDNA transposition
dc.subjectgene
dc.subjectgene locus
dc.subjectgene rearrangement
dc.subjectgene sequence
dc.subjectgene structure
dc.subjectgenetic recombination
dc.subjectgenetic variability
dc.subjecthost parasite interaction
dc.subjectin vitro study
dc.subjectmolecular evolution
dc.subjectmosaicism
dc.subjectphylogeny
dc.subjectprotein expression
dc.subjectprotein function
dc.subjectproteomics
dc.subjectspecies comparison
dc.subjectspecies differentiation
dc.subjecttranscription regulation
dc.subjectves1 gene
dc.subjectves2 gene
dc.titleThe evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentComputational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC)
dc.identifier.journalNucleic Acids Research
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC4066756
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Science Park Ic2, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionPathogen Genomics Group, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Functional and Comparative Genomics, Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionLaboratorio de Inmunologa y, EEA-INTA CC 22, 2300 Rafaela Santa Fe, Argentina
dc.contributor.institutionCentro Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Instituto de Biotecnologa INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
dc.contributor.institutionBioinformatics Laboratory, Structural and Computational Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Biosecurity Sciences Laboratory, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, QLD 4108, Australia
dc.contributor.institutionUMR1300 INRA/Oniris Biology, Epidemiology and Risk Analysis in Animal Health, BP 40706, F-44307 Nantes, France
dc.contributor.institutionFG Parasitologie, Philipps Universitt Marburg, Karl von Frisch Strasse 8, 35043 Marburg, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, 464 Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, Genetics Institute, University of Florida, 2015 SW 16th Avenue, Gainesville FL 33611-0880, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personRamaprasad, Abhinay
kaust.personMalas, Tareq Majed Yasin
kaust.personMoussa, Ehab
kaust.personNair, Mridul
kaust.personPain, Arnab
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T15:26:06Z


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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.