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dc.contributor.authorChen, Si Cong
dc.contributor.authorSu, Jincai
dc.contributor.authorFu, Feng-Jiang
dc.contributor.authorMi, Baoxia
dc.contributor.authorChung, Neal Tai-Shung
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:49:15Z
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:49:15Z
dc.date.issued2013-11-08
dc.identifier.citationChen S, Su J, Fu F-J, Mi B, Chung T-S (2013) Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) Scaling on Polybenzimidazole and Cellulose Acetate Hollow Fiber Membranes under Forward Osmosis. Membranes 3: 354-374. doi:10.3390/membranes3040354.
dc.identifier.issn20770375
dc.identifier.pmid24957062
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/membranes3040354
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325363
dc.description.abstractWe have examined the gypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling phenomena on membranes with different physicochemical properties in forward osmosis (FO) processes. Three hollow fiber membranes made of (1) cellulose acetate (CA), (2) polybenzimidazole (PBI)/polyethersulfone (PES) and (3) PBI-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) were studied. For the first time in FO processes, we have found that surface ionic interactions dominate gypsum scaling on the membrane surface. A 70% flux reduction was observed on negatively charged CA and PBI membrane surfaces, due to strong attractive forces. The PBI membrane surface also showed a slightly positive charge at a low pH value of 3 and exhibited a 30% flux reduction. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements confirmed a strong repulsive force between gypsum and PBI at a pH value of 3. The newly developed PBI-POSS/PAN membrane had ridge morphology and a contact angle of 51.42 14.85 after the addition of hydrophilic POSS nanoparticles and 3 min thermal treatment at 95 C. Minimal scaling and an only 1.3% flux reduction were observed at a pH value of 3. Such a ridge structure may reduce scaling by not providing a locally flat surface to the crystallite at a pH value of 3; thus, gypsum would be easily washed away from the surface. 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rightsThis article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectCellulose acetate
dc.subjectForward osmosis
dc.subjectFouling
dc.subjectGypsum scaling
dc.subjectPolybenzimidazole
dc.subjectPolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane
dc.subjectCellulose acetates
dc.subjectPolyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes
dc.subjectAtomic force microscopy
dc.subjectCellulose
dc.subjectGypsum
dc.subjectOligomers
dc.subjectOsmosis
dc.subjectpH
dc.subjectVolatile fatty acids
dc.subjectOsmosis membranes
dc.titleGypsum (CaSO42H2O) scaling on polybenzimidazole and cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes under forward osmosis
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
dc.identifier.journalMembranes
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC4021950
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionNUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (NGS), National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, 117456, Singapore
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 4, 117576, Singapore
dc.contributor.institutionMann+Hummel Ultra-Flo Pte Ltd, 18 Tuas Avenue 8, 639233, Singapore
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personChung, Neal Tai-Shung
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T15:18:54Z


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This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).