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dc.contributor.authorSagar, Sunil
dc.contributor.authorKaur, Mandeep
dc.contributor.authorMinneman, Kenneth P.
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:49:09Z
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:49:09Z
dc.date.issued2010-10-11
dc.identifier.citationSagar S, Kaur M, Minneman KP (2010) Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges. Marine Drugs 8: 2619-2638. doi:10.3390/md8102619.
dc.identifier.issn16603397
dc.identifier.pmid21116410
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/md8102619
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325361
dc.description.abstractMarine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherMDPI AG
dc.rightsThis article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
dc.subjectAntiviral
dc.subjectMetagenomics
dc.subjectNatural products
dc.subjectSponge
dc.subject4 methylaaptamine
dc.subjectaciclovir
dc.subjectantineoplastic agent
dc.subjectantineoplastic alkaloid
dc.subjectavarol
dc.subjectcyclodepsipeptide
dc.subjectDNA polymerase
dc.subjectdragmacidin f
dc.subjectmanzamine A
dc.subjectmicrospinosamide
dc.subjectmycalamide A
dc.subjectmycalamide B
dc.subjectnatural product
dc.subjectorganolead compound
dc.subjectpapuamide A
dc.subjectpapuamide b
dc.subjectpapuamide C
dc.subjectpapuamide D
dc.subjectunclassified drug
dc.subjectvidarabine
dc.subjectAaptos
dc.subjectantiviral activity
dc.subjectconcentration response
dc.subjectDNA synthesis inhibition
dc.subjectdrug isolation
dc.subjectdrug potency
dc.subjectdrug structure
dc.subjectdrug synthesis
dc.subjectenzyme inhibition
dc.subjectHaliclona
dc.subjectHalicortex
dc.subjectHerpes simplex virus
dc.subjecthigh throughput screening
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus
dc.subjectmetagenomics
dc.subjectPachypellina
dc.subjectreview
dc.subjectSidonops microspinosa
dc.subjectsponge (Porifera)
dc.subjecttethya crypta
dc.subjectTheonella
dc.subjectVaccinia virus
dc.subjectVaricella zoster virus
dc.subjectvirus infection
dc.subjectvirus inhibition
dc.subjectvirus resistance
dc.subjectvirus strain
dc.subjectAntiviral Agents
dc.subjectAquatic Organisms
dc.subjectBiotechnology
dc.subjectDrug Discovery
dc.subjectHerpes Simplex
dc.subjectHIV Infections
dc.subjectPorifera
dc.subjectSimplexvirus
dc.subjectSymbiosis
dc.subjectVidarabine
dc.subjectAra
dc.subjectHerpes
dc.subjectHuman herpesvirus 3
dc.subjectHuman immunodeficiency virus
dc.subjectSimplexvirus
dc.subjectTethya crypta
dc.titleAntiviral lead compounds from marine sponges
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentComputational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC)
dc.identifier.journalMarine Drugs
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC2992996
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionUnidad Académica de Sistemas Arrecifales (Puerto Morelos), Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autõnoma de México, Puerto Morelos, QR 77580, Mexico
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Natural Sciences, University of California Merced, 5200 North Lake Road, Merced, CA 95343, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personSagar, Sunil
kaust.personKaur, Mandeep
kaust.personMinneman, Kenneth P.
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T15:18:50Z


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This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).