KAUST DepartmentComputational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC)
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractMarine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of pharmacologically active compounds found in the marine environment. These bioactive molecules are often secondary metabolites, whose main function is to enable and/or modulate cellular communication and defense. They are usually produced by functional enzyme clusters in sponges and/or their associated symbiotic microorganisms. Natural product lead compounds from sponges have often been found to be promising pharmaceutical agents. Several of them have successfully been approved as antiviral agents for clinical use or have been advanced to the late stages of clinical trials. Most of these drugs are used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). The most important antiviral lead of marine origin reported thus far is nucleoside Ara-A (vidarabine) isolated from sponge Tethya crypta. It inhibits viral DNA polymerase and DNA synthesis of herpes, vaccinica and varicella zoster viruses. However due to the discovery of new types of viruses and emergence of drug resistant strains, it is necessary to develop new antiviral lead compounds continuously. Several sponge derived antiviral lead compounds which are hopedto be developed as future drugs are discussed in this review. Supply problems are usually the major bottleneck to the development of these compounds as drugs during clinical trials. However advances in the field of metagenomics and high throughput microbial cultivation has raised the possibility that these techniques could lead to the cost-effective large scale production of such compounds. Perspectives on biotechnological methods with respect to marine drug development are also discussed. 2010 by the authors; licensee MDPI.
CitationSagar S, Kaur M, Minneman KP (2010) Antiviral Lead Compounds from Marine Sponges. Marine Drugs 8: 2619-2638. doi:10.3390/md8102619.
PubMed Central IDPMC2992996
The following license files are associated with this item:
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
- Marine sponges: potential sources of new antimicrobial drugs.
- Authors: Laport MS, Santos OC, Muricy G
- Issue date: 2009 Jan
- Marine organisms as a therapeutic source against herpes simplex virus infection.
- Authors: Vo TS, Ngo DH, Ta QV, Kim SK
- Issue date: 2011 Sep 18
- Bioactive natural products with anti-herpes simplex virus properties.
- Authors: Hassan ST, Masarčíková R, Berchová K
- Issue date: 2015 Oct
- [Resistance of herpes simplex viruses to antiviral drugs].
- Authors: Scieux C, Bianchi A
- Issue date: 1993 Feb
- Effect of combinations of acyclovir with vidarabine or its 5'-monophosphate on herpes simplex viruses in cell culture and in mice.
- Authors: Schinazi RF, Peters J, Williams CC, Chance D, Nahmias AJ
- Issue date: 1982 Sep
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus cladeBrown, J.K.; Mills-Lujan, K.; Idris, Ali (Elsevier BV, 2011-06)The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directed Growth of Virus Nanofilaments on a Superhydrophobic SurfaceMarinaro, Giovanni; Burghammer, Manfred; Costa, Luca; Dane, Thomas; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Riekel, Christian (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2015-06-17)The evaporation of single droplets of colloidal tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanoparticles on a superhydrophobic surface with a hexagonal pillar-pattern results in the formation of coffee-ring type residues. We imaged surface features by optical, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies. Bulk features were probed by raster-scan X-ray nanodiffraction. At ∼100 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, the rim of the residue connects to neighboring pillars via fibrous extensions containing flow-aligned crystalline domains. At ∼1 pg/μL nanoparticle concentration, nanofilaments of ¥80 nm diameter and ∼20 μm length are formed, extending normal to the residue-rim across a range of pillars. X-ray scattering is dominated by the nanofilament form-factor but some evidence for crystallinity has been obtained. The observation of sheets composed of stacks of self-assembled nanoparticles deposited on pillars suggests that the nanofilaments are drawn from a structured droplet interface. © 2015 American Chemical Society.
Methamphetamine abuse affects gene expression in brain-derived microglia of SIV-infected macaques to enhance inflammation and promote virus targetsNajera, Julia A.; Bustamante, Eduardo A.; Bortell, Nikki; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S.; Ravasi, Timothy; Marcondes, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi (Springer Science + Business Media, 2016-04-23)Background Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse is a major health problem linked to the aggravation of HIV- associated complications, especially within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Within the CNS, Meth has the ability to modify the activity/function of innate immune cells and increase brain viral loads. Here, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of neuron-free microglial cell preparations isolated from the brain of macaques infected with the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), a model of neuroAIDS, and exposed to Meth. We aimed to identify molecular patterns triggered by Meth that could explain the detection of higher brain viral loads and the development of a pro-inflammatory CNS environment in the brain of infected drug abusers. Results We found that Meth alone has a strong effect on the transcription of genes associated with immune pathways, particularly inflammation and chemotaxis. Systems analysis led to a strong correlation between Meth exposure and enhancement of molecules associated with chemokines and chemokine receptors, especially CXCR4 and CCR5, which function as co-receptors for viral entry. The increase in CCR5 expression was confirmed in the brain in correlation with increased brain viral load. Conclusions Meth enhances the availability of CCR5-expressing cells for SIV in the brain, in correlation with increased viral load. This suggests that Meth is an important factor in the susceptibility to the infection and to the aggravated CNS inflammatory pathology associated with SIV in macaques and HIV in humans.