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dc.contributor.authorReid, Adam James
dc.contributor.authorVermont, Sarah J.
dc.contributor.authorCotton, James A.
dc.contributor.authorHarris, David
dc.contributor.authorHill-Cawthorne, Grant A.
dc.contributor.authorKönen-Waisman, Stephanie
dc.contributor.authorLatham, Sophia M.
dc.contributor.authorMourier, Tobias
dc.contributor.authorNorton, Rebecca
dc.contributor.authorQuail, Michael A.
dc.contributor.authorSanders, Mandy
dc.contributor.authorShanmugam, Dhanasekaran
dc.contributor.authorSohal, Amandeep
dc.contributor.authorWasmuth, James D.
dc.contributor.authorBrunk, Brian
dc.contributor.authorGrigg, Michael E.
dc.contributor.authorHoward, Jonathan C.
dc.contributor.authorParkinson, John
dc.contributor.authorRoos, David S.
dc.contributor.authorTrees, Alexander J.
dc.contributor.authorBerriman, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorPain, Arnab
dc.contributor.authorWastling, Jonathan M.
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:48:20Z
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:48:20Z
dc.date.issued2012-03-22
dc.identifier.citationReid AJ, Vermont SJ, Cotton JA, Harris D, Hill-Cawthorne GA, et al. (2012) Comparative Genomics of the Apicomplexan Parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum: Coccidia Differing in Host Range and Transmission Strategy. PLoS Pathog 8: e1002567. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002567.
dc.identifier.issn15537366
dc.identifier.pmid22457617
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.ppat.1002567
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325344
dc.description.abstractToxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PLoS Pathogens
dc.subjectmembrane antigen
dc.subjectconservation genetics
dc.subjectgene expression
dc.subjectgene sequence
dc.subjectgenetic transcription
dc.subjectgenome
dc.subjectNeospora caninum
dc.subjectparasite virulence
dc.subjectphosphorylation
dc.subjectsequence analysis
dc.subjectspecies difference
dc.subjectToxoplasma gondii
dc.subjectcoccidiosis
dc.subjectcomparative genomic hybridization
dc.subjectcomparative study
dc.subjectdisease transmission
dc.subjectgene expression regulation
dc.subjectgenetics
dc.subjectgenomics
dc.subjecthost parasite interaction
dc.subjectNeospora
dc.subjectparasitology
dc.subjectpathogenicity
dc.subjectphysiology
dc.subjectToxoplasma
dc.subjecttoxoplasmosis
dc.subjectvertical transmission
dc.subjectvirulence
dc.subjectzoonosis
dc.subjectApicomplexa
dc.subjectBos
dc.subjectCanis familiaris
dc.subjectCoccidia
dc.subjectNeospora
dc.subjectNeospora caninum
dc.subjectProtozoa
dc.subjectRodentia
dc.subjectToxoplasma
dc.subjectToxoplasma gondii
dc.subjectVertebrata
dc.subjectCoccidiosis
dc.subjectComparative Genomic Hybridization
dc.subjectGene Expression Regulation
dc.subjectGenomics
dc.subjectHost-Parasite Interactions
dc.subjectInfectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
dc.subjectNeospora
dc.subjectToxoplasma
dc.subjectToxoplasmosis
dc.subjectVirulence
dc.subjectZoonoses
dc.titleComparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.contributor.departmentComputational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC)
dc.contributor.departmentPathogen Genomics Laboratory
dc.identifier.journalPLoS Pathogens
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3310773
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionWellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgshire, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute of Infection and Global Health and School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom
dc.contributor.institutionInstitute for Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States
dc.contributor.institutionProgram in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children and Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
dc.contributor.institutionLaboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Bethesda, MD, United States
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personHill-Cawthorne, Grant A.
kaust.personPain, Arnab
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T15:15:24Z


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