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dc.contributor.authorStaff, Lee
dc.contributor.authorHurd, Patricia
dc.contributor.authorReale, Lara
dc.contributor.authorSeoighe, Cathal
dc.contributor.authorRockwood, Alyn
dc.contributor.authorGehring, Christoph A
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-27T09:46:12Z
dc.date.available2014-08-27T09:46:12Z
dc.date.issued2012-09-11
dc.identifier.citationStaff L, Hurd P, Reale L, Seoighe C, Rockwood A, et al. (2012) The Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis. PLoS ONE 7: e43546. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043546.
dc.identifier.issn19326203
dc.identifier.pmid22984433
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0043546
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/325307
dc.description.abstractThe quest for the discovery of mathematical principles that underlie biological phenomena is ancient and ongoing. We present a geometric analysis of the complex interdigitated pavement cells in the Arabidopsis thaliana (Col.) adaxial epidermis with a view to discovering some geometric characteristics that may govern the formation of this tissue. More than 2,400 pavement cells from 10, 17 and 24 day old leaves were analyzed. These interdigitated cells revealed a number of geometric properties that remained constant across the three age groups. In particular, the number of digits per cell rarely exceeded 15, irrespective of cell area. Digit numbers per 100 ?m2 cell area reduce with age and as cell area increases, suggesting early developmental programming of digits. Cell shape proportions as defined by length:width ratios were highly conserved over time independent of the size and, interestingly, both the mean and the medians were close to the golden ratio 1.618034. With maturity, the cell area:perimeter ratios increased from a mean of 2.0 to 2.4. Shape properties as defined by the medial axis transform (MAT) were calculated and revealed that branch points along the MAT typically comprise one large and two small angles. These showed consistency across the developmental stages considered here at 140° (± 5°) for the largest angles and 110° (± 5°) for the smaller angles. Voronoi diagram analyses of stomatal center coordinates revealed that giant pavement cells (?500 ?m2) tend to be arranged along Voronoi boundaries suggesting that they could function as a scaffold of the epidermis. In addition, we propose that pavement cells have a role in spacing and positioning of the stomata in the growing leaf and that they do so by growing within the limits of a set of 'geometrical rules'. © 2012 Staff et al.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PLoS ONE
dc.subjectArabidopsis
dc.subjectcell differentiation
dc.subjectcell division
dc.subjectcell maturation
dc.subjectcell shape
dc.subjectcell size
dc.subjectcell surface
dc.subjectcellular distribution
dc.subjectcontrolled study
dc.subjectdevelopmental stage
dc.subjectgeometry
dc.subjectgiant cell
dc.subjectleaf development
dc.subjectleaf growth
dc.subjectplant age
dc.subjectplant epidermis cell
dc.subjectplant leaf
dc.subjectplant stoma
dc.subjectArabidopsis
dc.subjectCell Differentiation
dc.subjectCell Division
dc.subjectCell Shape
dc.subjectPlant Epidermis
dc.subjectPlant Leaves
dc.subjectPlant Stomata
dc.subjectArabidopsis thaliana
dc.titleThe Hidden Geometries of the Arabidopsis thaliana Epidermis
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division
dc.contributor.departmentBioscience Program
dc.contributor.departmentMolecular Signalling Group
dc.contributor.departmentVisual Computing Center (VCC)
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONE
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3439452
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personGehring, Christoph A.
kaust.personStaff, Lee
kaust.personHurd, Patricia
kaust.personRockwood, Alyn
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-14T03:39:18Z


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