Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock
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AbstractThe circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.
CitationBhardwaj V, Meier S, Petersen LN, Ingle RA, Roden LC (2011) Defence Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Infection by Pseudomonas syringae Are Regulated by the Circadian Clock. PLoS ONE 6: e26968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026968.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed Central IDPMC3205005
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Comparison of avirulent pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and beneficial Enterobacter sp SA187 for enhancing salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thalianaJalal, Rewaa S. (2019-05) [Dissertation]
Advisor: Hirt, Heribert
Committee members: Arold, Stefan T.; Blilou, Ikram; Wrzaczek, Michael; de-julien-de-Zelicourt, AxelAbiotic stresses such as salt stress are the major limiting factors for agricultural productivity, and cause global food insecurity. It is well known that plant associated beneficial microorganisms can stimulate plant growth and enhance resistance to abiotic stresses. In this context, bacterial endophytes are a group of bacteria that colonize the host plant and play a fundamental role in plant growth enhancement under stress condition. Recently, our group reported that the beneficial bacteria Enterobacter sp.SA187 induces plant growth in Arabidopsis under salt stress conditions by manipulation of the plant ethylene signaling pathway. We therefore compared inoculation of plants by SA187 with virulent and non-virulent strains Pst DC3000. Although both strains inhibit plant growth at ambient conditions, Pst DC3000 hrcC-, but not Pst DC3000, induced salt stress tolerance, suggesting that Pst DC3000 hrcC- also contains plant growth promoting activity under stress conditions. Our results indicate that Pst DC3000 hrcC- shares features with beneficial bacteria by inducing salt tolerance through reduction of the shoot and root Na+/K+ ratio. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this interaction with Arabidopsis, RNAseq, hormone and biochemical analyses were performed. Genetic studies also show that Pst DC3000 hrcC- induced salt stress tolerance involving several phytohormone pathways, including auxin, ethylene and salicylic acid. Transcriptome and genetic analyses indicate that glucosinolates play an important role in this beneficial interaction. We found that indolic and alkyl glucosinolates act as negative factors on Pst DC3000 hrcC-, alkyl glucosinolates are positive and indolic glucosinolates negative regulators in SA187 interaction with Arabidopsis. These results reveal that besides a repertoire of effectors, Pst DC3000 hrcC- also produces factors that can be beneficial for plant growth under certain stress conditions, as observed with Enterobacter sp. SA187.
The Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase CRK20 modulates host responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infectionEderli, Luisa; Madeo, Laura; Calderini, Ornella; Gehring, Christoph A; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Buonaurio, Roberto; Paolocci, Francesco; Pasqualini, Stefania (Journal of Plant Physiology, Elsevier BV, 2011-10) [Article]In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O3). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains to be elucidated. To determine the function of CRK20 in such responses, two CRK20 loss-of-function mutants, crk20-1 and crk20-2, were isolated from public collections of Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged lines and examined for responses to O3 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. crk20-1 and crk20-2 showed similar O3 sensitivities and no differences in the expression of defense genes when compared with the wild-type. However, pathogen growth was significantly reduced, while there were no differences in the induction of salicylic acid related defense genes or salicylic acid accumulation. Furthermore, correlation analysis of CRK20 gene expression suggests that it has a role in the control of H2O and/or nutrient transport. We therefore propose that CRK20 promotes conditions that are favorable for Pst DC3000 growth in Arabidopsis, possibly through the regulation of apoplastic homeostasis, and consequently, of the environment of this biotrophic pathogen. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.
Constitutive Activity of the Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 3 Confers Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Drives Robust Immune ResponsesLang, Julien; Genot, Baptiste; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean (Plant Signaling & Behavior, Informa UK Limited, 2017-08-02) [Article]Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are known to be important mediators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a recent report, we enlarged the understanding of the Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 functions showing that the expression of a constitutively active (CA) form of the protein led to auto-immune phenotypes. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarf and display defense responses that are characterized by the accumulation of salicylic acid and phytoalexins as well as by the upregulation of several defense genes. Consistently with these data, we present here results demonstrating that, compared to wild type controls, CA-MPK3 plants are more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Based on our previous work, we also discuss the mechanisms of robust plant immunity controlled by sustained MPK3 activity, focusing especially on the roles of disease resistance proteins.