Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock
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AbstractThe circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.
CitationBhardwaj V, Meier S, Petersen LN, Ingle RA, Roden LC (2011) Defence Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Infection by Pseudomonas syringae Are Regulated by the Circadian Clock. PLoS ONE 6: e26968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026968.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed Central IDPMC3205005
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The Arabidopsis thaliana cysteine-rich receptor-like kinase CRK20 modulates host responses to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infectionEderli, Luisa; Madeo, Laura; Calderini, Ornella; Gehring, Christoph A; Moretti, Chiaraluce; Buonaurio, Roberto; Paolocci, Francesco; Pasqualini, Stefania (Elsevier BV, 2011-10)In plants, the cysteine-rich repeat kinases (CRKs) are a sub-family of receptor-like protein kinases that contain the DUF26 motif in their extracellular domains. It has been shown that in Arabidopsis thaliana, CRK20 is transcriptionally induced by pathogens, salicylic acid and ozone (O3). However, its role in responses to biotic and abiotic stress remains to be elucidated. To determine the function of CRK20 in such responses, two CRK20 loss-of-function mutants, crk20-1 and crk20-2, were isolated from public collections of Arabidopsis T-DNA tagged lines and examined for responses to O3 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000. crk20-1 and crk20-2 showed similar O3 sensitivities and no differences in the expression of defense genes when compared with the wild-type. However, pathogen growth was significantly reduced, while there were no differences in the induction of salicylic acid related defense genes or salicylic acid accumulation. Furthermore, correlation analysis of CRK20 gene expression suggests that it has a role in the control of H2O and/or nutrient transport. We therefore propose that CRK20 promotes conditions that are favorable for Pst DC3000 growth in Arabidopsis, possibly through the regulation of apoplastic homeostasis, and consequently, of the environment of this biotrophic pathogen. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.
An Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat protein harbors an adenylyl cyclase catalytic center and affects responses to pathogensBianchet, Chantal; Wong, Aloysius Tze; Quaglia, Mara; Alquraishi, May Majed; Gehring, Christoph A; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Pasqualini, Stefania (Elsevier BV, 2018-11-03)Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the formation of the second messenger cAMP from ATP. Here we report the characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat (LRR) protein (At3g14460; AtLRRAC1) as an adenylyl cyclase. Using an AC-specific search motif supported by computational assessments of protein models we identify an AC catalytic center within the N-terminus and demonstrate that AtLRRAC1 can generate cAMP in vitro. Knock-out mutants of AtLRRAC1 have compromised immune responses to the biotrophic fungus Golovinomyces orontii and the hemibiotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae, but not against the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea. These findings are consistent with a role of cAMP-dependent pathways in the defense against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogens.
Salmonella enterica induces and subverts the plant immune systemGarcía, Ana V.; Hirt, Heribert (Frontiers Media SA, 2014-04-04)Infections with Salmonella enterica belong to the most prominent causes of food poisoning and infected fruits and vegetables represent important vectors for salmonellosis. Although it was shown that plants raise defense responses against Salmonella, these bacteria persist and proliferate in various plant tissues. Recent reports shed light into the molecular interaction between plants and Salmonella, highlighting the defense pathways induced and the means used by the bacteria to escape the plant immune system and accomplish colonization. It was recently shown that plants detect Salmonella pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), such as the flagellin peptide flg22, and activate hallmarks of the defense program known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Interestingly, certain Salmonella strains carry mutations in the flg22 domain triggering PTI, suggesting that a strategy of Salmonella is to escape plant detection by mutating PAMP motifs. Another strategy may rely on the type III secretion system (T3SS) as T3SS mutants were found to induce stronger plant defense responses than wild type bacteria. Although Salmonella effector delivery into plant cells has not been shown, expression of Salmonella effectors in plant tissues shows that these bacteria also possess powerful means to manipulate the plant immune system. Altogether, these data suggest that Salmonella triggers PTI in plants and evolved strategies to avoid or subvert plant immunity. 2014 Garca and Hirt.