Defence responses of arabidopsis thaliana to infection by pseudomonas syringae are regulated by the circadian clock
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AbstractThe circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in the morning. Accordingly, we observed that PAMP-triggered callose deposition was significantly higher in wild-type plants inoculated with Pst DC3000 hrpA in the subjective morning than in the evening, while no such temporal difference was evident in arrhythmic plants. Our results suggest that PAMP-triggered immune responses are modulated by the circadian clock and that temporal regulation allows plants to anticipate and respond more effectively to pathogen challenges in the daytime. © 2011 Bhardwaj et al.
CitationBhardwaj V, Meier S, Petersen LN, Ingle RA, Roden LC (2011) Defence Responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to Infection by Pseudomonas syringae Are Regulated by the Circadian Clock. PLoS ONE 6: e26968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026968.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed Central IDPMC3205005
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Constitutive Activity of the Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 3 Confers Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and Drives Robust Immune ResponsesLang, Julien; Genot, Baptiste; Hirt, Heribert; Colcombet, Jean (Informa UK Limited, 2017-08-02)Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are known to be important mediators of plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In a recent report, we enlarged the understanding of the Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 functions showing that the expression of a constitutively active (CA) form of the protein led to auto-immune phenotypes. CA-MPK3 plants are dwarf and display defense responses that are characterized by the accumulation of salicylic acid and phytoalexins as well as by the upregulation of several defense genes. Consistently with these data, we present here results demonstrating that, compared to wild type controls, CA-MPK3 plants are more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Based on our previous work, we also discuss the mechanisms of robust plant immunity controlled by sustained MPK3 activity, focusing especially on the roles of disease resistance proteins.
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