A nucleotide metabolite controls stress-responsive gene expression and plant development
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AbstractAbiotic stress, such as drought and high salinity, activates a network of signaling cascades that lead to the expression of many stress-responsive genes in plants. The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) protein is a negative regulator of stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and exhibits both an inositol polyphosphatase and a 3?,5?-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity in vitro. The FRY1 nucleotidase degrades the sulfation byproduct 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphate (PAP), yet its in vivo functions and particularly its roles in stress gene regulation remain unclear. Here we developed a LC-MS/MS method to quantitatively measure PAP levels in plants and investigated the roles of this nucleotidase activity in stress response and plant development. It was found that PAP level was tightly controlled in plants and did not accumulate to any significant level either under normal conditions or under NaCl, LiCl, cold, or ABA treatments. In contrast, high levels of PAP were detected in multiple mutant alleles of FRY1 but not in mutants of other FRY1 family members, indicating that FRY1 is the major enzyme that hydrolyzes PAP in vivo. By genetically reducing PAP levels in fry1 mutants either through overexpression of a yeast PAP nucleotidase or by generating a triple mutant of fry1 apk1 apk2 that is defective in the biosynthesis of the PAP precursor 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS), we demonstrated that the developmental defects and superinduction of stress-responsive genes in fry1 mutants correlate with PAP accumulation in planta. We also found that the hypersensitive stress gene regulation in fry1 requires ABH1 but not ABI1, two other negative regulators in ABA signaling pathways. Unlike in yeast, however, FRY1 overexpression in Arabidopsis could not enhance salt tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PAP is critical for stress gene regulation and plant development, yet the FRY1 nucleotidase that catabolizes PAP may not be an in vivo salt toxicity target in Arabidopsis. © 2011 Chen et al.
CitationChen H, Zhang B, Hicks LM, Xiong L (2011) A Nucleotide Metabolite Controls Stress-Responsive Gene Expression and Plant Development. PLoS ONE 6: e26661. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0026661.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed Central IDPMC3197580
- The bifunctional abiotic stress signalling regulator and endogenous RNA silencing suppressor FIERY1 is required for lateral root formation.
- Authors: Chen H, Xiong L
- Issue date: 2010 Dec
- FIERY1 encoding an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase is a negative regulator of abscisic acid and stress signaling in Arabidopsis.
- Authors: Xiong L, Lee Bh, Ishitani M, Lee H, Zhang C, Zhu JK
- Issue date: 2001 Aug 1
- FIERY1 regulates light-mediated repression of cell elongation and flowering time via its 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity.
- Authors: Kim BH, von Arnim AG
- Issue date: 2009 Apr
- Genetic interaction of two abscisic acid signaling regulators, HY5 and FIERY1, in mediating lateral root formation.
- Authors: Chen H, Xiong L
- Issue date: 2011 Jan
- The Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein PGN functions in defense against necrotrophic fungi and abiotic stress tolerance.
- Authors: Laluk K, Abuqamar S, Mengiste T
- Issue date: 2011 Aug
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A KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein Interacts with FIERY2/CTD Phosphatase-Like 1 and Splicing Factors and Is Important for Pre-mRNA Splicing in ArabidopsisChen, Tao; Cui, Peng; Chen, Hao; Ali, Shahjahan; Zhang, ShouDong; Xiong, Liming (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2013-10-17)Eukaryotic genomes encode hundreds of RNA-binding proteins, yet the functions of most of these proteins are unknown. In a genetic study of stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis, we identified a K homology (KH)-domain RNA-binding protein, HOS5 (High Osmotic Stress Gene Expression 5), as required for stress gene regulation and stress tolerance. HOS5 was found to interact with FIERY2/RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (FRY2/CPL1) both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is mediated by the first double-stranded RNA-binding domain of FRY2/CPL1 and the KH domains of HOS5. Interestingly, both HOS5 and FRY2/CPL1 also interact with two novel serine-arginine (SR)-rich splicing factors, RS40 and RS41, in nuclear speckles. Importantly, FRY2/CPL1 is required for the recruitment of HOS5. In fry2 mutants, HOS5 failed to be localized in nuclear speckles but was found mainly in the nucleoplasm. hos5 mutants were impaired in mRNA export and accumulated a significant amount of mRNA in the nuclei, particularly under salt stress conditions. Arabidopsis mutants of all these genes exhibit similar stress-sensitive phenotypes. RNA-seq analyses of these mutants detected significant intron retention in many stress-related genes under salt stress but not under normal conditions. Our study not only identified several novel regulators of pre-mRNA processing as important for plant stress response but also suggested that, in addition to RNAP II CTD that is a well-recognized platform for the recruitment of mRNA processing factors, FRY2/CPL1 may also recruit specific factors to regulate the co-transcriptional processing of certain transcripts to deal with environmental challenges. © 2013 Chen et al.
Protein implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation regulates protein kinase A (PKA) activityAltawashi, Azza; Jung, Sung Yun; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Qin, Jun (American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB), 2012-02-28)Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacitytoformdendritesandsynapsesinculture. Atthebiochemical level,CC2D1Atransduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. 2012 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
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