- Evolution of Host Specificity by Malaria Parasites through Altered Mechanisms Controlling Genome Maintenance.
- Authors: Siao MC, Borner J, Perkins SL, Deitsch KW, Kirkman LA
- Issue date: 2020 Mar 17
- An analysis of mobile genetic elements in three Plasmodium species and their potential impact on the nucleotide composition of the P. falciparum genome.
- Authors: Durand PM, Oelofse AJ, Coetzer TL
- Issue date: 2006 Nov 4
- Divergent evolutionary constraints on mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of malaria parasites.
- Authors: McIntosh MT, Srivastava R, Vaidya AB
- Issue date: 1998 Sep 1
- Selection shapes malaria genomes and drives divergence between pathogens infecting hominids versus rodents.
- Authors: Prugnolle F, McGee K, Keebler J, Awadalla P
- Issue date: 2008 Jul 30
- Molecular systematics of the three mitochondrial protein-coding genes of malaria parasites: corroborative and new evidence for the origins of human malaria.
- Authors: Perkins SL
- Issue date: 2008 Dec
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Characterization and gene expression analysis of the cir multi-gene family of plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (AS)Lawton, Jennifer; Brugat, Thibaut; Yan, Yam Xue; Reid, Adam James; Böhme, Ulrike; Otto, Thomas Dan; Pain, Arnab; Jackson, Andrew; Berriman, Matthew; Cunningham, Deirdre; Preiser, Peter; Langhorne, Jean (BMC Genomics, Springer Nature, 2012-03-29) [Article]Background: The pir genes comprise the largest multi-gene family in Plasmodium, with members found in P. vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species. Despite comprising up to 5% of the genome, little is known about the functions of the proteins encoded by pir genes. P. chabaudi causes chronic infection in mice, which may be due to antigenic variation. In this model, pir genes are called cirs and may be involved in this mechanism, allowing evasion of host immune responses. In order to fully understand the role(s) of CIR proteins during P. chabaudi infection, a detailed characterization of the cir gene family was required.Results: The cir repertoire was annotated and a detailed bioinformatic characterization of the encoded CIR proteins was performed. Two major sub-families were identified, which have been named A and B. Members of each sub-family displayed different amino acid motifs, and were thus predicted to have undergone functional divergence. In addition, the expression of the entire cir repertoire was analyzed via RNA sequencing and microarray. Up to 40% of the cir gene repertoire was expressed in the parasite population during infection, and dominant cir transcripts could be identified. In addition, some differences were observed in the pattern of expression between the cir subgroups at the peak of P. chabaudi infection. Finally, specific cir genes were expressed at different time points during asexual blood stages.Conclusions: In conclusion, the large number of cir genes and their expression throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle of development indicates that CIR proteins are likely to be important for parasite survival. In particular, the detection of dominant cir transcripts at the peak of P. chabaudi infection supports the idea that CIR proteins are expressed, and could perform important functions in the biology of this parasite. Further application of the methodologies described here may allow the elucidation of CIR sub-family A and B protein functions, including their contribution to antigenic variation and immune evasion. 2012 Lawton et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasitesHunt, Paul; Martinelli, Axel; Modrzynska, Katarzyna; Borges, Sofia; Creasey, Alison; Rodrigues, Louise; Beraldi, Dario; Loewe, Laurence; Fawcett, Richard; Kumar, Sujai; Thomson, Marian; Trivedi, Urmi; Otto, Thomas D; Pain, Arnab; Blaxter, Mark; Cravo, Pedro (BMC Genomics, Springer Nature, 2010-09-16) [Article]Background: Classical and quantitative linkage analyses of genetic crosses have traditionally been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic variation at single base-pair resolution. Here, we combine in vivo experimental evolution, a rapid genetic strategy and whole genome re-sequencing to identify the precise genetic basis of artemisinin resistance in a lineage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Such genetic markers will further the investigation of resistance and its control in natural infections of the human malaria, P. falciparum.Results: A lineage of isogenic in vivo drug-selected mutant P. chabaudi parasites was investigated. By measuring the artemisinin responses of these clones, the appearance of an in vivo artemisinin resistance phenotype within the lineage was defined. The underlying genetic locus was mapped to a region of chromosome 2 by Linkage Group Selection in two different genetic crosses. Whole-genome deep coverage short-read re-sequencing (IlluminaSolexa) defined the point mutations, insertions, deletions and copy-number variations arising in the lineage. Eight point mutations arise within the mutant lineage, only one of which appears on chromosome 2. This missense mutation arises contemporaneously with artemisinin resistance and maps to a gene encoding a de-ubiquitinating enzyme.Conclusions: This integrated approach facilitates the rapid identification of mutations conferring selectable phenotypes, without prior knowledge of biological and molecular mechanisms. For malaria, this model can identify candidate genes before resistant parasites are commonly observed in natural human malaria populations. 2010 Hunt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
A scalable pipeline for highly effective genetic modification of a malaria parasitePfander, Claudia; Anar, Burcu; Schwach, Frank; Otto, Thomas D.; Brochet, Mathieu; Volkmann, Katrin; Quail, Michael A.; Pain, Arnab; Rosen, Barry; Skarnes, William; Rayner, Julian C.; Billker, Oliver (Nature Methods, Springer Nature, 2011-10-23) [Article]In malaria parasites, the systematic experimental validation of drug and vaccine targets by reverse genetics is constrained by the inefficiency of homologous recombination and by the difficulty of manipulating adenine and thymine (A+T)-rich DNA of most Plasmodium species in Escherichia coli. We overcame these roadblocks by creating a high-integrity library of Plasmodium berghei genomic DNA (>77% A+T content) in a bacteriophage N15-based vector that can be modified efficiently using the lambda Red method of recombineering. We built a pipeline for generating P. berghei genetic modification vectors at genome scale in serial liquid cultures on 96-well plates. Vectors have long homology arms, which increase recombination frequency up to tenfold over conventional designs. The feasibility of efficient genetic modification at scale will stimulate collaborative, genome-wide knockout and tagging programs for P. berghei. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.