A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host
AuthorsGaravaglia, Betiana S
Daurelio, Lucas D
Orellano, Elena G
Gehring, Christoph A
KAUST DepartmentComputational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC)
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractBackground: Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival.Results: Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin.Conclusions: We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. 2010 Garavaglia et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
CitationGaravaglia BS, Thomas L, Zimaro T, Gottig N, Daurelio LD, et al. (2010) A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host. BMC Plant Biol 10: 51. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-10-51.
JournalBMC Plant Biology
PubMed Central IDPMC2923525
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- A eukaryotic-acquired gene by a biotrophic phytopathogen allows prolonged survival on the host by counteracting the shut-down of plant photosynthesis.
- Authors: Garavaglia BS, Thomas L, Gottig N, Dunger G, Garofalo CG, Daurelio LD, Ndimba B, Orellano EG, Gehring C, Ottado J
- Issue date: 2010 Jan 28
- Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis.
- Authors: Gottig N, Garavaglia BS, Daurelio LD, Valentine A, Gehring C, Orellano EG, Ottado J
- Issue date: 2008 Nov 25
- Shedding light on the role of photosynthesis in pathogen colonization and host defense.
- Authors: Garavaglia BS, Thomas L, Gottig N, Zimaro T, Garofalo CG, Gehring C, Ottado J
- Issue date: 2010 Jul
- A plant natriuretic peptide-like gene in the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis may induce hyper-hydration in the plant host: a hypothesis of molecular mimicry.
- Authors: Nembaware V, Seoighe C, Sayed M, Gehring C
- Issue date: 2004 Mar 24
- Extracellular matrix-associated proteome changes during non-host resistance in citrus-Xanthomonas interactions.
- Authors: Swaroopa Rani T, Podile AR
- Issue date: 2014 Apr
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Insights into xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri biofilm through proteomicsZimaro, Tamara; Thomas, Ludivine; Marondedze, Claudius; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia (Springer Nature, 2013-08-07)Background: Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Citri (X. a. pv. Citri) causes citrus canker that can result in defoliation and premature fruit drop with significant production losses worldwide. Biofilm formation is an important process in bacterial pathogens and several lines of evidence suggest that in X. a. pv. Citri this process is a requirement to achieve maximal virulence since it has a major role in host interactions. In this study, proteomics was used to gain further insights into the functions of biofilms. Results: In order to identify differentially expressed proteins, a comparative proteomic study using 2D difference gel electrophoresis was carried out on X. a. pv. Citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells. The biofilm proteome showed major variations in the composition of outer membrane proteins and receptor or transport proteins. Among them, several porins and TonB-dependent receptor were differentially regulated in the biofilm compared to the planktonic cells, indicating that these proteins may serve in maintaining specific membrane-associated functions including signaling and cellular homeostasis. In biofilms, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase with a major role in exopolysaccharide production and the non-fimbrial adhesin YapH involved in adherence were over-expressed, while a polynucleotide phosphorylase that was demonstrated to negatively control biofilm formation in E. coli was down-regulated. In addition, several proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and stabilization were up-regulated in biofilms. Interestingly, some proteins related to energy production, such as ATP-synthase were down-regulated in biofilms. Moreover, a number of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were differentially expressed. In addition, X. a. pv. Citri biofilms also showed down-regulation of several antioxidant enzymes. The respective gene expression patterns of several identified proteins in both X. a. pv. Citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and shown to consistently correlate with those deduced from the proteomic study. Conclusions: Differentially expressed proteins are enriched in functional categories. Firstly, proteins that are down-regulated in X. a. pv. Citri biofilms are enriched for the gene ontology (GO) terms 'generation of precursor metabolites and energy' and secondly, the biofilm proteome mainly changes in 'outer membrane and receptor or transport'. We argue that the differentially expressed proteins have a critical role in maintaining a functional external structure as well as enabling appropriate flow of nutrients and signals specific to the biofilm lifestyle. 2013 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
A eukaryotic-acquired gene by a biotrophic phytopathogen allows prolonged survival on the host by counteracting the shut-down of plant photosynthesisGaravaglia, Betiana S.; Thomas, Ludivine; Gottig, Natalia; Dunger, Germán; Garofalo, Cecilia G.; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Ndimba, Bongani; Orellano, Elena G.; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2010-01-28)Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the bacteria responsible for citrus canker posses a biological active plant natriuretic peptide (PNP)-like protein, not present in any other bacteria. PNPs are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile peptides that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. Previously, we showed that a Xanthomonas citri pv. citri mutant lacking the PNP-like protein XacPNP produced more necrotic lesions in citrus leaves than wild type infections and suggested a role for XacPNP in the regulation of host homeostasis. Here we have analyzed the proteome modifications observed in citrus leaves infected with the wild type and XacPNP deletion mutant bacteria. While both of them cause downregulation of enzymes related to photosynthesis as well as chloroplastic ribosomal proteins, proteins related to defense responses are up-regulated. However, leaves infiltrated with the XacPNP deletion mutant show a more pronounced decrease in photosynthetic proteins while no reduction in defense related proteins as compared to the wild-type pathogen. This suggests that XacPNP serves the pathogen to maintain host photosynthetic efficiency during pathogenesis. The results from the proteomics analyses are consistent with our chlorophyll fluorescence data and transcript analyses of defense genes that show a more marked reduction in photosynthesis in the mutant but no difference in the induction of genes diagnostic for biotic-stress responses. We therefore conclude that XacPNP counteracts the shut-down of host photosynthesis during infection and in that way maintains the tissue in better conditions, suggesting that the pathogen has adapted a host gene to modify its natural host and render it a better reservoir for prolonged bacterial survival and thus for further colonization. 2010 Garavaglia et al.
The type III protein secretion system contributes to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri biofilm formationZimaro, Tamara; Thomas, Ludivine; Marondedze, Claudius; Sgro, Germán G; Garofalo, Cecilia G; Ficarra, Florencia A; Gehring, Christoph A; Ottado, Jorgelina; Gottig, Natalia (Springer Nature, 2014-04-18)Background: Several bacterial plant pathogens colonize their hosts through the secretion of effector proteins by a Type III protein secretion system (T3SS). The role of T3SS in bacterial pathogenesis is well established but whether this system is involved in multicellular processes, such as bacterial biofilm formation has not been elucidated. Here, the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) was used as a model to gain further insights about the role of the T3SS in biofilm formation. Results: The capacity of biofilm formation of different X. citri T3SS mutants was compared to the wild type strain and it was observed that this secretion system was necessary for this process. Moreover, the T3SS mutants adhered proficiently to leaf surfaces but were impaired in leaf-associated growth. A proteomic study of biofilm cells showed that the lack of the T3SS causes changes in the expression of proteins involved in metabolic processes, energy generation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and bacterial motility as well as outer membrane proteins. Furthermore, EPS production and bacterial motility were also altered in the T3SS mutants. Conclusions: Our results indicate a novel role for T3SS in X. citri in the modulation of biofilm formation. Since this process increases X. citri virulence, this study reveals new functions of T3SS in pathogenesis. 2014 Zimaro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.