Recent Submissions

  • Inkjet Printed RF Sensor Array For Lung Disease Detection

    Tayyab, M.; Sharawi, M.S.; Shamim, Atif (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018-11-20)
    We propose an RF sensor array for lung disease detection. The size of the sensor array is 4cm*89.4cm. The sensor consists of 38 electrodes and 37 ports. The first two electrodes are optimized to operate at 60 MHz and act as a signal exciter. The remaining 36 electrodes receive the radiated field. The transmission coefficients Si1 at each passive port are calculated using HFSS software. An equation was designed for dielectric constant estimation using the Least Squares (LS) method. The sensor is fabricated using Inkjet printing. The experiments of the fabricated sensor were conducted on an average adult human chest elliptical model.
  • Evolution of Junction Temperature and Heating Effects in UV AlGaN Nanowires LEDs

    Priante, Davide; Elafandy, Rami T.; Prabaswara, Aditya; Janjua, Bilal; Zhao, Chao; Tangi, Malleswararao; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alaskar, Yazeed; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (OSA, 2018-11-20)
    We show reduced junction temperature and heat dissipation in AlGaN nanowires LEDs on a metal substrate compared to devices on a silicon substrate by employing the forward-voltage and peak-shift methods.
  • All-Dielectric Terahertz Half-Wave Plate with Antireflection Layer

    Zi, Jianchen; Xu, Quan; Wang, Qiu; Tian, Chunxiu; Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili (OSA, 2018-11-20)
    We present an all-dielectric terahertz half-wave plate with an antireflection layer. The device is made of pure silicon, and can realize cross polarization conversion with almost 100% conversion rate and 90% of transmission at the operating frequency.
  • A New ROI-Based performance evaluation method for image denoising using the Squared Eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger Operator

    Chahid, Abderrazak; Serrai, Hacene; Achten, Eric; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem (IEEE, 2018-11-16)
    In this paper a new Region Of Interest (ROI) characterization for image denoising performance evaluation is proposed. This technique consists of balancing the contrast between the dark and bright ROIs, in Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, to track the noise removal. It achieves an optimal compromise between removal of noise and preservation of image details. The ROI technique has been tested using synthetic MRI images from the BrainWeb database. Moreover, it has been applied to a recently developed denoising method called Semi-Classical Signal Analysis (SCSA). The SCSA decomposes the image into the squared eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger operator where a soft threshold h is used to remove the noise. The results obtained using real MRI data suggest that this method is suitable for real medical image processing evaluation where the noise-free image is not available.
  • Experimental and Theoretical Study of Two-to-One Internal Resonance of MEMS Resonators

    Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Alfosail, Feras; Younis, Mohammad I. (ASME, 2018-11-02)
    In this paper, we investigate experimentally and theoretically the two-to-one (2:1) internal resonance between the first two symmetric vibrational modes of microelectromechanical (MEMS) arch resonator electrothermally tuned and electrostatically driven. Applying electrothermal voltage across the beam anchors controls its stiffness and then its resonance frequencies. Hence the ratio between the two frequencies can be tuned to a ratio of two. Then, we study the dynamic response of the arch beam during internal resonance. In the studied case, the presence of high AC bias excitation leads to the direct simultaneous excitation of the 1st and 3rd frequencies in addition to the activation of the internal resonance. A reduced order model and perturbation techniques are presented to analyze the nonlinear response of the structure. In the perturbation technique, the direct excitation of the 3rd resonance frequency is taken into consideration. Results show the presence of Hopf bifurcations, which can lead to chaotic motion at higher excitation. A good agreement among the theoretical and experimental results is shown.
  • Low Temperature and Radiation Stability of Flexible IGZO TFTs and their Suitability for Space Applications

    Costa, Julio C.; Pouryazdan, Arash; Panidi, Julianna; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Liedke, Maciej O.; Schneider, Christof; Wagner, Andreas; Munzenrieder, Niko (IEEE, 2018-10-18)
    In this paper, Low Earth Orbit radiation and temperature conditions are mimicked to investigate the suitability of flexible Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide transistors for lightweight space-wearables. Such wearable devices could be incorporated into spacesuits as unobtrusive sensors such as radiation detectors or physiological monitors. Due to the harsh environment to which these space-wearables would be exposed, they have to be able to withstand high radiation doses and low temperatures. For this reason, the impacts of high energetic electron irradiation with fluences up to 10 e/cm and low operating temperatures down to 78 K, are investigated. This simulates 278 h in a Low Earth Orbit. The threshold voltage and mobility of transistors that were exposed to e-irradiation are found to shift by +0.09 0.05 V and-0.6 0.5 cmVs. Subsequent low temperature exposure resulted in additional shifts of +0.38V and-5.95 cmVs for the same parameters. These values are larger than the ones obtained from non-irradiated reference samples. If this is considered during the systems' design, these devices can be used to unobtrusively integrate sensor systems into space-suits.
  • Diagnosing Error in Temporal Action Detectors

    Alwassel, Humam; Caba Heilbron, Fabian; Escorcia, Victor; Ghanem, Bernard (Springer International Publishing, 2018-10-06)
    Despite the recent progress in video understanding and the continuous rate of improvement in temporal action localization throughout the years, it is still unclear how far (or close?) we are to solving the problem. To this end, we introduce a new diagnostic tool to analyze the performance of temporal action detectors in videos and compare different methods beyond a single scalar metric. We exemplify the use of our tool by analyzing the performance of the top rewarded entries in the latest ActivityNet action localization challenge. Our analysis shows that the most impactful areas to work on are: strategies to better handle temporal context around the instances, improving the robustness w.r.t. the instance absolute and relative size, and strategies to reduce the localization errors. Moreover, our experimental analysis finds the lack of agreement among annotator is not a major roadblock to attain progress in the field. Our diagnostic tool is publicly available to keep fueling the minds of other researchers with additional insights about their algorithms.
  • Action Search: Spotting Actions in Videos and Its Application to Temporal Action Localization

    Alwassel, Humam; Caba Heilbron, Fabian; Ghanem, Bernard (Springer International Publishing, 2018-10-06)
    State-of-the-art temporal action detectors inefficiently search the entire video for specific actions. Despite the encouraging progress these methods achieve, it is crucial to design automated approaches that only explore parts of the video which are the most relevant to the actions being searched for. To address this need, we propose the new problem of action spotting in video, which we define as finding a specific action in a video while observing a small portion of that video. Inspired by the observation that humans are extremely efficient and accurate in spotting and finding action instances in video, we propose Action Search, a novel Recurrent Neural Network approach that mimics the way humans spot actions. Moreover, to address the absence of data recording the behavior of human annotators, we put forward the Human Searches dataset, which compiles the search sequences employed by human annotators spotting actions in the AVA and THUMOS14 datasets. We consider temporal action localization as an application of the action spotting problem. Experiments on the THUMOS14 dataset reveal that our model is not only able to explore the video efficiently (observing on average 17.3% of the video) but it also accurately finds human activities with 30.8% mAP.
  • TrackingNet: A Large-Scale Dataset and Benchmark for Object Tracking in the Wild

    Müller, Matthias; Bibi, Adel Aamer; Giancola, Silvio; Al-Subaihi, Salman; Ghanem, Bernard (Springer International Publishing, 2018-10-05)
    Despite the numerous developments in object tracking, further improvement of current tracking algorithms is limited by small and mostly saturated datasets. As a matter of fact, data-hungry trackers based on deep-learning currently rely on object detection datasets due to the scarcity of dedicated large-scale tracking datasets. In this work, we present TrackingNet, the first large-scale dataset and benchmark for object tracking in the wild. We provide more than 30K videos with more than 14 million dense bounding box annotations. Our dataset covers a wide selection of object classes in broad and diverse context. By releasing such a large-scale dataset, we expect deep trackers to further improve and generalize. In addition, we introduce a new benchmark composed of 500 novel videos, modeled with a distribution similar to our training dataset. By sequestering the annotation of the test set and providing an online evaluation server, we provide a fair benchmark for future development of object trackers. Deep trackers fine-tuned on a fraction of our dataset improve their performance by up to 1.6% on OTB100 and up to 1.7% on TrackingNet Test. We provide an extensive benchmark on TrackingNet by evaluating more than 20 trackers. Our results suggest that object tracking in the wild is far from being solved.
  • Human Supervised Multirotor UAV System Design for Inspection Applications

    Shaqura, Mohammad; Alzuhair, Khalid; Abdellatif, Fadl; Shamma, Jeff S. (IEEE, 2018-09-20)
    Multirotor UAVs are widely used for aerial inspection applications where missions are accomplished either via manual or autonomous control. Human controlled UAVs require trained pilots which can be a barrier from using the technology for general inspection personnel. Fully autonomous navigation, which employs onboard sensing, planning and coverage algorithms, is effective but comes with the cost of development and operational complexities. A human supervised UAV system design is presented where a deployed aerial vehicle operates in semi-autonomous mode. An operator, who is equipped with a smart handheld laser pointer, gives the UAV global guiding directions to reach the inspection target. The UAV is equipped with onboard vision sensing for local planning and target identification in addition to video streaming or recording. System operation is validated in indoor fliaht tests.
  • High Power GaN-based Blue Superluminescent Diode Exceeding 450 mW

    Alatawi, Abdullah; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Shen, Chao; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Alhamoud, Abdullah A.; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S. (IEEE, 2018-09-19)
    We demonstrate a high-power blue emitting superluminescent diode (SLD) with a tilted-facet configuration. An optical power of 457 mW with a broad spectral bandwidth of 6.5 nm was obtained under pulsed current injection of 1A, leading to a large power-bandwidth product of ~2970 mW·nm.
  • Numerical simulation of the magnetic cement induction response in the borehole environment

    Eltsov, Timofey; Patzek, Tadeusz W. (Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2018-09-12)
    We present a technique for the detection of integrity of the magnetic cement behind resistive fiberglass casing. Numerical simulations show that an optimized induction logging tool allows one to detect small changes in the magnetic permeability of cement through a non-conductive casing in a vertical (or horizontal) well. Changes in magnetic permeability influence mostly the real part of the vertical component of magnetic field. The signal attenuation is sensitive to a change of magnetic properties of the cement. Our simulations show that optimum separation between the transmitter and receiver coils ranges from 0.25 to 0.6 meters, and the most suitable magnetic field frequencies vary from 0.1 to 10 kHz. Our goal is to build cheap, long-lasting, low-temperature (<150°C) geothermal wells with water recirculation.
  • Multibit Memory Cells Based on Spin-Orbit Torque Driven Magnetization Switching of Nanomagnets with Configurational Anisotropy

    Wasef, Shaik; Amara, Selma; Alawein, Meshal; Fariborzi, Hossein (IEEE, 2018-09-07)
    In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of novel four and six terminal current-driven magnetic memory cells. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate the magnetization switching of triangular and square magnets through spin-orbit torque by in-plane currents in a Pt/NiFe (Py) heterostructure. The spin torques, generated by applying a constant current in one of multiple Pt wires, are used to switch a Py film between its multiple stable magnetic states, as quantified by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measurements at room temperature. The observations have also been confirmed by micromagnetic simulations.
  • An Intelligent Gripper Design for Autonomous Aerial Transport with Passive Magnetic Grasping and Dual-Impulsive Release

    Fiaz, Usman A.; Abdelkader, M.; Shamma, Jeff S. (IEEE, 2018-09-07)
    We present a novel gripper design for autonomous aerial transport of ferrous objects with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The proposed design uses permanent magnets for grasping, and a novel dual-impulsive release mechanism, for achieving drop. The gripper can simultaneously lift up to four objects of arbitrary shape, in fully autonomous mode, with a 100% rate of successful drops. We optimize the system subject to realistic constraints, such as the simplicity of design and its sturdiness to aerial maneuvers, payload limits for multi-rotor UAVs, reliability of autonomous grasping irrespective of the environment of operation, active power consumption of the gripper, and its comparison with the existing technologies. We describe the design concepts, and the hardware, and perform extensive experiments is both indoor and outdoor environments, with two multi-rotor configurations. Several results, showcasing superior performance of the proposed system are provided as well.
  • Manufacturable Heterogeneous Integration for Flexible CMOS Electronics

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Shaikh, Sohail F.; Sevilla, Galo A. Torres; Nassar, Joanna M.; Hussain, Aftab M.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Rojas, Jhonathan P.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Cruz, Melvin (IEEE, 2018-09-07)
    Nearly sixty years back when Jack Kilby built the first integrated circuit (IC), it was also the beginning of today's advanced and matured complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology whose arts and science of miniaturization has enabled Moore's Law to double up the number of devices in a given area in every two years. It has also been possible because CMOS technology has consistently adopted new materials and processes. High performance (data processing speed in computational devices), energy efficiency (for portable devices) and ultra-large-scale-integration (ULSI) density - all these features have been added to every major technology generation in additive manner. As we go forward and embrace Internet of Everything (IoE) where people, process, device and data are going to be seamlessly connected, we may want to ask ourselves a few fundamental questions about the future of CMOS electronics, enabling role of CMOS technology, potential benefits and application opportunities. Physically flexible electronics are increasingly getting attention as a critical and impactful expansion area for the general area of electronics. Many exciting demonstrations have been made to point out to its powerful prospect. Due to the paradox that traditional crystalline materials based electronics are useful in data management but they are naturally rigid and bulky, most of the researchers have resorted to two strategies: (i) non-silicon based fully flexible system with limited functionality and (ii) hybrid flexible electronic system with off-the-shelf ICs for data management. We do not consider this paradox is fundamental and a block-by-block approach using traditional CMOS technology can allow us to build fully flexible CMOS electronic systems [Fig. 1].
  • A Quantitative Platform for Non-Line-of-Sight Imaging Problems

    Klein, Jonathan; Laurenzis, Martin; Michels, Dominik L.; Hullin, Matthias B. (2018-09-06)
    The computational sensing community has recently seen a surge of works on imaging beyond the direct line of sight. However, most of the reported results rely on drastically different measurement setups and algorithms, and are therefore hard to impossible to compare quantitatively. In this paper, we focus on an important class of approaches, namely those that aim to reconstruct scene properties from time-resolved optical impulse responses. We introduce a collection of reference data and quality metrics that are tailored to the most common use cases, and we define reconstruction challenges that we hope will aid the development and assessment of future methods.
  • Fully printed microwave sensor for simultaneous and independent level measurements of 8 liquids

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif (IEEE, 2018-09-03)
    Level sensors find numerous applications in many industries to automate the processes involving chemicals. Currently, some commercial ultrasound, capacitance and microwave radar based level sensors are being used for medical and industrial usage [1]. Some of the desirable features in any level sensor are its non-intrusiveness, low cost and consistent performance. It is a common stereotype to consider microwaves sensing mechanism as being expensive. Unlike usual expensive, intrusive and bulky microwave methods of level sensing using guided radars, this paper presents an extremely low cost, fully printed, non-intrusive microwave sensor to reliably sense the level/volume of 8 different types of liquid independently and simultaneously. This paper presents a new microwave level sensor whose design is inspired by a T-reso-nator. A unique modification of the conventional T-resonator enables it to sense liquid level/volume present inside any metallic container of cylindrical shape. The proposed sensor can be thoroughly fabricated using additive manufacturing like 3D and screen printing making it easier, faster and cheaper to realize.
  • Super-Resolution and Sparse View CT Reconstruction

    Zang, Guangming; Aly, Mohamed; Idoughi, Ramzi; Wonka, Peter; Heidrich, Wolfgang (2018-09-01)
    We present a flexible framework for robust computed tomography (CT) reconstruction with a specific emphasis on recovering thin 1D and 2D manifolds embedded in 3D volumes. To reconstruct such structures at resolutions below the Nyquist limit of the CT image sensor, we devise a new 3D structure tensor prior, which can be incorporated as a regularizer into more traditional proximal optimization methods for CT reconstruction. As a second, smaller contribution, we also show that when using such a proximal reconstruction framework, it is beneficial to employ the Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (SART) instead of the commonly used Conjugate Gradient (CG) method in the solution of the data term proximal operator. We show empirically that CG often does not converge to the global optimum for tomography problem even though the underlying problem is convex. We demonstrate that using SART provides better reconstruction results in sparse-view settings using fewer projection images. We provide extensive experimental results for both contributions on both simulated and real data. Moreover, our code will also be made publicly available.
  • Flexible Magnetoresistive Sensors for Guiding Cardiac Catheters

    Hawsawi, M.; Amara, S.; Mashraei, Y.; Almansouri, A.; Mohammad, H.; Sevilla, G. Torres; Jakob, G.; Jaiswal, S.; Klaui, M.; Haneef, A.; Saoudi, A.; Hussain, M.; Kosel, J. (IEEE, 2018-08-20)
    Cardiac catheterization is a procedure, in which a long thin tube that is called a “catheter” is inserted into the heart for diagnosis or treatment. Due to the excessive use of x-ray doses and contrast agents for orientation detection during the surgery, there is a need to find a better alternative. This paper presents magnetic tunnel junction sensors on flexible Si attached to the catheter tip for orientation detection during minimally invasive surgeries. Due to the small size of catheters, extreme minimization in terms of size, weight, thickness and power consumption is needed for any device implemented on it. The fabricated flexible magnetic tunnel junctions fulfill those requirements with size, thickness, weight and power consumption of 150 μm 2 , 12 μm, 8 μg and 0.15 μW, respectively, while still providing a high sensitivity of 4.93 %/Oe. The sensors can be bent with up to 500 μm in diameter, which is more than needed for even the smallest catheters of size 1 mm (3 Fr) in diameter. This result is a stepping-stone towards the development of a versatile and low-cost smart catheter system that can help surgeons navigate inside the heart while minimizing the side effects.
  • Highly-Sensitive Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Flow Cytometer

    Amara, Selma; Bu, Ride; Alawein, Meshal; Alsharif, Nouf; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Xixiang; Kosel, Jurgen; Fariborzi, Hossein (IEEE, 2018-08-20)
    Flow cytometers are important instruments for biological and biomedical analyses. These instruments are large and expensive, and researchers are continuously striving to come up with smaller, cheaper, and more energy-efficient flow cytometers. In this work, we present a highly-sensitive magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based flow cytometer. An externally magnetized magnetic beads labeling cells were placed above an MTJ sensor that can measure the stray field surrounding the beads. It was found that each time labeled cells pass through the sensitive area of the sensor, a peak of signal was observed. The results demonstrate a novel MTJ based flow cytometer design approach for accurate detection of magnetically labeled cells.

View more