Now showing items 1-20 of 20079

    • Vegetation assessments under the influence of environmental variables from the Yakhtangay Hill of the Hindu-Himalayan range, North Western Pakistan

      Ullah, Hameed; Khan, Shujaul Mulk; Jaremko, Mariusz; Jahangir, Sadia; Ullah, Zahid; Ali, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Badshah, Hussain (Scientific Reports, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      Vegetation structures and dynamics are the result of interactions between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem. The present study was designed to investigate vegetation structure and species diversity along various environmental variables in the Yakhtangay Hills of the Hindu-Himalayan Mountain Pakistan, by using multivariate statistical analysis. Quadrat quantitative method was used for the sampling of vegetation. PC-ORD version 5 software was used to classify the vegetation into different plants communities using cluster analysis. The results of regression analysis among various edaphic variables shows that soil organic matter, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 and moisture contents shows a significant positive correlation with species abundance, while the soil pH has inverse relationship with plant species abundance. Similarly, species richness increases with increase in soil organic matter, CaCO3 and moisture contents, while decrease with increase in soil pH, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (p < 0.05). The vegetation was classified into four major plant communities and their respective indicators were identified using indicator species analysis. Indicator species analysis reflects the indicators of the study area are mostly the indicators to the Himalayan or moist temperate ecosystem. These indicators could be considered for micro-habitat conservation and respective ecosystem management plans not only in the study area but also in other region with similar sort of environmental conditions.
    • Implementing structural equation modelling and multiple mediator models for management information systems

      Osman, Esam; Hardaker, Glenn; Glenn, Liyana Eliza (The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, Emerald, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      Purpose Overall quantitative research aims to observe certain fundamental principles of logic and scientific frame of reasoning. There continues to be challenges on how quantitative research is conducted in the field of information systems. Design/methodology/approach Structured equation modelling (SEM) research identifies concerns about the standard of scientific enquiry method, the issue of the misconception of sustaining the consequent and the issue of collective validity. Therefore, rigor and robustness in instrument validity, constructs validity and path analysis validity maybe better achieved by attending to these three concerns. Measuring a multiple mediator construct in a hypothetical model continues to be a challenge for researchers in information systems research and related fields. Findings This paper aims to provide a thoughtful assessment of the contemporary issues of structural equation modelling methodology (SEMM), by providing rigid and robust SEMM that has several stages in specifying valid multiple mediators construct and the process to measuring in a path analysis model. This paper attempts to develop each stage of the methodology using relevant research to construct a methodology specified to test effects in multiple mediators in SEM using AMOS software. The methodology developed contains the two main phases; first is prior to data collection phase and the second phase is after the data collection, the use of this methodology design, for implementation, intended to support high methodological standards and subsequent quality in MIS research findings. Originality/value The research paper provides SEMM that has several stages in specifying valid multiple mediators construct and the process to measuring in a path analysis model.
    • Impact of layer thickness on the operating characteristics of In2O3/ZnO heterojunction thin-film transistors featured

      Alghamdi, Wejdan S.; Fakieh, Aiman; Faber, Hendrik; Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Wei-Zhi; Lu, Po-Yu; Liu, Chien-Hao; Salama, Khaled N.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      Combining low-dimensional layers of dissimilar metal oxide materials to form a heterojunction structure offers a potent strategy to improve the performance and stability of thin-film transistors (TFTs). Here, we study the impact of channel layer thicknesses on the operating characteristics of In2O3/ZnO heterojunction TFTs prepared via sputtering. The conduction band offset present at the In2O3/ZnO heterointerface affects the device's operating characteristics, as is the thickness of the individual oxide layers. The latter is investigated using a variety of experimental and computational modeling techniques. An average field-effect mobility (μFE) of >50 cm2 V−1 s−1, accompanied by a low threshold voltage and a high on/off ratio (∼108), is achieved using an optimal channel configuration. The high μFE in these TFTs is found to correlate with the presence of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at the In2O3/ZnO interface. This work provides important insight into the operating principles of heterojunction metal oxide TFTs, which can aid further developments.
    • Correct estimation of permeability using experiment and simulation

      Khirevich, Siarhei; Yutkin, Maxim; Patzek, Tadeusz (Physics of Fluids, AIP Publishing, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      Estimation of permeability of porous media dates back to Henry Darcy [H. Darcy, Les Fontaines Publiques de la Ville de Dijon (Victor Dalmont, 1856)], and its knowledge is essential in many scientific and engineering endeavors. Despite apparent simplicity of permeability measurements, the literature data are scattered, and this scatter not always can be attributed to the precision of experiment or simulation or to sample variability. Here, we demonstrate an excellent agreement (<1%) between experiments and simulations, where experimental results are extensive and stable, while flow is simulated from first principles, directly on three-dimensional images of the sample, and without fitting parameters. Analyzing when experiments and simulations agree reveals a major flaw affecting many experimental measurements with the out-of-sample placement of pressure ports, including industry standards. The flaw originates from (1) incorrect calculation of the applied pressure gradient, (2) omitting virtual part of the measured system, and (3) pressure loss at the sample–tube contact. Contrary to common wisdom, the relative magnitude of (3) is defined by the sample–tube diameter ratio and is independent of the size of sample pores. Our findings are applicable to a wide range of permeability measurements, including geological-sample-type (Hassler cell) and membrane-type. The reported pressure loss (3) also affects two-phase flow measurements, such as capillary pressure estimation. Removing or taking the flaw into account advances the understanding and control of flow-related processes in complex geometries.
    • Development of a steady detonation reactor with state-to-state thermochemical modeling

      Vargas, J.; Mével, R.; Lino da Silva, M.; Lacoste, Deanna (Shock Waves, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      In recent years, several studies have been dedicated to modeling of detonations including assumptions of thermal non-equilibrium. Modeling using two-temperature models has shown that non-equilibrium affects detonation dynamics. However, the deployment of state-to-state models, one of the foremost non-equilibrium modeling tools, in detonation modeling remains under-explored. In this work, we detail the implementation of a STS model of N2 and O2 in a Zel’dovich–von Neumann–Döring reactor for a mixture of H2–air. Certain modifications to the usual theory and models must be performed before the deployment of aforementioned model, namely in the thermodynamics formulation. Additionally, since most codes are not compatible with STS models, a validation of an in-house code is carried out against CHEMKIN. Results indicate that the multi-temperature approach adopted in earlier works is likely not appropriate to model the internal distribution function of O2 and therefore should be used with caution. A comparison of an estimated cell width with experimental values confirms the potential of the STS framework for a more accurate detonation modeling.
    • Effects of low-temperature chemistry on direct detonation initiation by a hot spot under engine conditions

      Luong, Minh Bau; Im, Hong G. (Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, Elsevier BV, 2022-12-05) [Article]
      This study investigates the effect of low-temperature chemistry (LTC) on the minimum runup distance, lm, of direct detonation initiation by an autoignitive hot spot under engine conditions. A newly predictive model is proposed to determine an a priori lm . The temperature and pressure increase and the radical build-up prior to the main ignition resulting from LTC are incorporated in the model that allows a better prediction of ignition modes. A series of 1D simulations are performed by varying the initial temperature, the hot spot size and its temperature difference at constant-volume and engine conditions. DME (ethanol) is used to represent a two (single) stage ignition fuel. It was found that taking the transient evolution of the mixture state as an initial condition to the ZND model results in a better representative exothermic characteristic length scale, which exhibits a strong linear correlation with lm regardless of fuel types over a wide range of conditions. The LTC oxidation is found to reduce lm by approximately a factor of two for the low-temperature cases, leading to a comparable value of lm to that of the high-temperature cases. It was also found that the ignition modes are better predicted by identifying an alternative characteristic length scale based on the variation of ignition delay time Tig within its range of monotonic distribution. For a hot spot that has temperature variation spanning across the NTC regime, the runup distance was found to be shortened by approximately a factor of two, such that a longer hot-spot size is required to form detonation. In addition, a better prediction of ignition modes was achieved by defining the normalized front speed as a statistical mean for each runup-distance element than that determined at the midpoint of a hot spot.
    • The Role of Microorganisms in the Nucleation of Carbonates, Environmental Implications and Applications

      Robles-Fernández, Ana; Areias, Camila; Daffonchio, Daniele; Vahrenkamp, Volker; Sánchez-Román, Mónica (Minerals, MDPI AG, 2022-12-03) [Article]
      Microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) is an important process in the synthesis of carbonate minerals, and thus, it is widely explored as a novel approach with potential for many technological applications. However, the processes and mechanisms involved in carbonate mineral formation in the presence of microbes are not yet fully understood. This review covers the current knowledge regarding the role of microbial cells and metabolic products (e.g., extracellular polymeric substances, proteins and amino acids) on the adsorption of divalent metals, adsorption of ionic species and as templates for crystal nucleation. Moreover, they can play a role in the mineral precipitation, size, morphology and lattice. By understanding how microbes and their metabolic products promote suitable physicochemical conditions (pH, Mg/Ca ratio and free CO32− ions) to induce carbonate nucleation and precipitation, the manipulation of the final mineral precipitates could be a reality for (geo)biotechnological approaches. The applications and implications of biogenic carbonates in areas such as geology and engineering are presented and discussed in this review, with a major focus on biotechnology.
    • Computing with B-series

      Ketcheson, David I.; Ranocha, Hendrik (ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022-12-02) [Article]
      We present BSeries.jl, a Julia package for the computation and manipulation of B-series, which are a versatile theoretical tool for understanding and designing discretizations of differential equations. We give a short introduction to the theory of B-series and associated concepts and provide examples of their use, including method composition and backward error analysis. The associated software is highly performant and makes it possible to work with B-series of high order.
    • Histone modifications and DNA methylation act cooperatively in regulating symbiosis genes in the sea anemone Aiptasia

      Nawaz, Kashif; Cziesielski, Maha Joana; Mariappan, Kiruthiga; Cui, Guoxin; Aranda, Manuel (BMC Biology, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-12-02) [Article]
      Background: The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is one of the most widespread endosymbiosis in our oceans and provides the ecological basis of coral reef ecosystems. Although many studies have been undertaken to unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying these symbioses, we still know little about the epigenetic mechanisms that control the transcriptional responses to symbiosis. Results: Here, we used the model organism Exaiptasia diaphana to study the genome-wide patterns and putative functions of the histone modifications H3K27ac, H3K4me3, H3K9ac, H3K36me3, and H3K27me3 in symbiosis. While we find that their functions are generally conserved, we observed that colocalization of more than one modification and or DNA methylation correlated with significantly higher gene expression, suggesting a cooperative action of histone modifications and DNA methylation in promoting gene expression. Analysis of symbiosis genes revealed that activating histone modifications predominantly associated with symbiosis-induced genes involved in glucose metabolism, nitrogen transport, amino acid biosynthesis, and organism growth while symbiosis-suppressed genes were involved in catabolic processes. Conclusions: Our results provide new insights into the mechanisms of prominent histone modifications and their interaction with DNA methylation in regulating symbiosis in cnidarians.
    • Engineering Stable Lead-free Tin Halide Perovskite Solar Cells: Lessons from Materials Chemistry

      Macdonald, Thomas J.; Lanzetta, Luis Alejandro; Liang, Xinxing; Ding, Dong; Haque, Saif A. (Advanced Materials, Wiley, 2022-12-02) [Article]
      Substituting toxic lead with tin (Sn) in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is the most promising route towards the development of high-efficiency lead-free devices. Despite the encouraging efficiencies of Sn-PSCs, they are still yet to surpass 15% and suffer detrimental oxidation of Sn(II) to Sn(IV). Since their first application in 2014, many investigations into the properties of Sn-PSCs have contributed to a growing understanding of the mechanisms, both detrimental and complementary to their stability. This review summarizes the evolution of Sn-PSCs, including early developments to the latest state-of-the-art approaches used to benefit the stability of devices. We first outline the degradation pathways associated with Sn-PSCs, followed by describing how composition engineering (A, B site modifications), additive engineering (oxidation prevention), and interface engineering (passivation strategies) can be employed as different avenues to improve the stability of devices. The knowledge about these properties is also not limited to PSCs and also applicable to other types of devices now employing Sn-based perovskite absorber layers. A detailed analysis of the properties and materials chemistry reveals a clear set of design rules for the development of stable Sn-PSCs. Applying the design strategies highlighted in this review will be essential to further improve both the efficiency and stability of Sn-PSCs.
    • A model of fracture-facilitated flow of hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

      Pharr, Luke; Marder, Michael; Patzek, Tadeusz (International Journal of Fracture, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022-12-02) [Article]
      We study the processes by which petroleum originates in source rock and generates a transport path enabling some of it to leave. We show that diffusion through the source rock is too slow to account for the migration of petroleum. However when kerogen converts into petroleum within pores, it expands, and this expansion is sufficient to fracture the rock around the pores. Thus the transport of petroleum depends on whether these fractures connect up to form a macroscopic transport path. We develop a simulation tool that lets us study pressurized fluid in disk-shaped domains which expand and fracture the surrounding material. Examining pairs of pressurized pores, we obtain a lower limit for critical porosity in shale rock, ϕcrit.=0.15. When kerogen saturation exceeds this value, long-range transport paths become possible. This critical porosity is comparable to the porosities observed in immature shales.
    • Performance Improvement of InGaN-Based LEDs via a Current-Blocking Region Prepared via Hydrogen Passivation

      Kirilenko, Pavel; Altinkaya, Cesur; Iida, Daisuke; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro (Crystals, MDPI AG, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      We report p-GaN passivation via hydrogen plasma used to create current blocking regions (CBRs) in InGaN-based green LEDs with standard dimensions of 280 × 650 μm2. The CBRs are created before mesa etching in two variants: underneath the opaque metal p-pad and both underneath the p-pad and along the device’s mesa perimeter. The peak EQE increased by 13% and 23% in the first and the second cases, respectively, in comparison to the reference LED with no CBR. With a high injection current of 50 A/cm2, the EQE value increased by 2% in the case of CBRs underneath the p-pad as well as by 14% in the case of CBRs both underneath the p-pad and along the mesa perimeter (relative to the reference sample with no CBR).
    • DoE-ML guided optimization of an active pre-chamber geometry using CFD

      Silva, Mickael Messias; Mohan, Balaji; Badra, Jihad; Zhang, Anqi; Hlaing, Ponnya; Cenker, Emre; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Im, Hong G. (International Journal of Engine Research, SAGE Publications, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      An optimized active pre-chamber geometry was obtained by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and machine learning (ML). A heavy-duty engine operating with methane under lean conditions was considered. The combustion process was modeled with a multi-zone well-stirred reactor (MZ-WSR) with a skeletal methane oxidation mechanism. The simulations were run for a complete cycle. For the optimization study, the pre-chamber was parametrized; six independent and three dependent variables were considered, while the volume was kept constant. Three hundred pre-chamber designs were generated, and a one-shot design of experiments (DoE) optimization was first considered. A merit function was adopted to rank the designs, and an optimum design was found from the DoE results, which yielded considerable improvements in merit ranking, considering fuel consumption, engine-out emissions, noise, and safety; secondly, machine learning algorithms were trained by utilizing the DoE results aiming at finding a globally optimum geometry for the considered operating condition. Five sequential iterations were performed, and the ML algorithms were capable of proposing a new design with superior performance compared to the best DoE.
    • Increasing the Strength, Hardness, and Survivability of Semiconducting Polymers by Crosslinking

      Chen, Alexander X.; Hilgar, Jeremy D.; Samoylov, Anton A.; Pazhankave, Silpa S.; Bunch, Jordan A.; Choudhary, Kartik; Esparza, Guillermo L.; Lim, Allison; Luo, Xuyi; Chen, Hu; Runser, Rory; McCulloch, Iain; Mei, Jianguo; Hoover, Christian; Printz, Adam D.; Romero, Nathan A.; Lipomi, Darren J. (Advanced Materials Interfaces, Wiley, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      Crosslinking is a ubiquitous strategy in polymer engineering to increase the thermomechanical robustness of solid polymers but has been relatively unexplored in the context of π-conjugated (semiconducting) polymers. Notwithstanding, mechanical stability is key to many envisioned applications of organic electronic devices. For example, the wide-scale distribution of photovoltaic devices incorporating conjugated polymers may depend on integration with substrates subject to mechanical insult—for example, road surfaces, flooring tiles, and vehicle paint. Here, a four-armed azide-based crosslinker (“4Bx”) is used to modify the mechanical properties of a library of semiconducting polymers. Three polymers used in bulk heterojunction solar cells (donors J51 and PTB7-Th, and acceptor N2200) are selected for detailed investigation. In doing so, it is shown that low loadings of 4Bx can be used to increase the strength (up to 30%), toughness (up to 75%), hardness (up to 25%), and cohesion of crosslinked films. Likewise, crosslinked films show greater physical stability in comparison to non-crosslinked counterparts (20% vs 90% volume lost after sonication). Finally, the locked-in morphologies and increased mechanical robustness enable crosslinked solar cells to have greater survivability to four degradation tests: abrasion (using a sponge), direct exposure to chloroform, thermal aging, and accelerated degradation (heat, moisture, and oxygen).
    • Hybrid FSO/THz-based Backhaul Network for mmWave Terrestrial Communication

      Singya, Praveen Kumar; Makki, Behrooz; D'Errico, Antonio; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim (IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2022-12-01) [Article]
      In this work, a hybrid free-space optics (FSO)/ teraHertz (THz) based backhaul network is considered to provide high-data-rate reliable communication to the terrestrial mobile users (MUs) operating at millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands. The FSO link is affected by atmospheric turbulence and pointing error impairments. At the FSO receiver, both intensity-modulated direct detection and heterodyne detection techniques are considered. The multi-antenna THz link suffers from high path-loss, small-scale fading, and misalignment error. To minimize the effect of back-and-forth switching, soft switching method is introduced at the access point (AP) to select the signal coming through the hybrid FSO/THz link, and a comparison with hard switching method is presented. Selective decode-and-forward relaying is considered at the AP. In this context, we derive closed-form expressions of the individual link’s outage probability, end-to-end (E2E) outage probability, asymptotic outage probability, ergodic capacity, and generalized average bit-error-rate. Finally, we study the effect of different parameters such as atmospheric turbulence, pointing/misalignment errors, link distance, atmospheric attenuation/path-loss, fading parameters of the THz and access links, and number of antennas on the network performance. Our results indicate that, with a proper switching method, the joint implementation of FSO/THz links improves the rate/reliability of the backhaul links with limited switching overhead.
    • Electronic Circuits made of 2D Materials

      Lanza, Mario; Radu, Iuliana (Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.), Wiley, 2022-12-01) [Article]
    • Correlative Raman–Electron–Light (CREL) Microscopy Analysis of Lipid Droplets in Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells

      Pagliari, Francesca; Sogne, Elisa; Panella, Davide; Perozziello, Gerardo; Liberale, Carlo; Das, Gobind; Turdo, Alice; Di Franco, Simone; Seco, Joao; Falqui, Andrea; Gratteri, Santo; Pujia, Arturo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Tirinato, Luca (Biosensors, MDPI AG, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      Among all neoplasms, melanoma is characterized by a very high percentage of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several markers have been proposed for their identification, and lipid droplets (LDs) are among them. Different techniques are used for their characterization such as mass spectrometry, imaging techniques, and vibrational spectroscopies. Some emerging experimental approaches for the study of LDs are represented by correlative light–electron microscopy and by correlative Raman imaging–scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Based on these scientific approaches, we developed a novel methodology (CREL) by combining Raman micro-spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy, and SEM coupled with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy module. This procedure correlated cellular morphology, chemical properties, and spatial distribution from the same region of interest, and in this work, we presented the application of CREL for the analysis of LDs within patient-derived melanoma CSCs (MCSCs).
    • Diffractive lensless imaging with optimized Voronoi-Fresnel phase

      Fu, Qiang; Yan, Dong-Ming; Heidrich, Wolfgang (Optics Express, Optica Publishing Group, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      Lensless cameras are a class of imaging devices that shrink the physical dimensions to the very close vicinity of the image sensor by replacing conventional compound lenses with integrated flat optics and computational algorithms. Here we report a diffractive lensless camera with spatially-coded Voronoi-Fresnel phase to achieve superior image quality. We propose a design principle of maximizing the acquired information in optics to facilitate the computational reconstruction. By introducing an easy-to-optimize Fourier domain metric, Modulation Transfer Function volume (MTFv), which is related to the Strehl ratio, we devise an optimization framework to guide the optimization of the diffractive optical element. The resulting Voronoi-Fresnel phase features an irregular array of quasi-Centroidal Voronoi cells containing a base first-order Fresnel phase function. We demonstrate and verify the imaging performance for photography applications with a prototype Voronoi-Fresnel lensless camera on a 1.6-megapixel image sensor in various illumination conditions. Results show that the proposed design outperforms existing lensless cameras, and could benefit the development of compact imaging systems that work in extreme physical conditions.
    • A Novel Approach to Train Self-Supervised Seismic Denoising Dnn Architectures

      Romero, Juan; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Ibrahim, Olawale (First Break, EAGE Publications, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      Removing noise present in seismic data is of prime importance for seismic processing workflows and a matter of continuous research in the academic community. The challenging part of seismic noise suppression is the diverse nature of seismic noise: it is found as a combination of random and coloured noise, which can be both structured and unstructured. Algorithms based on signal decomposition, domain transformation, and filtering, among others, have been traditionally applied to denoise seismic data and have been successful for specific imaging targets, hence mostly identifying a specific seismic noise component. Recently, convolutional neural networks-based (CNN) denoisers have greatly outperformed standard denoising techniques mostly in natural and medical imaging applications, and furthermore, self-supervised frameworks have been proposed as a clever alternative to denoising when no ground truth exists. This work leverages four state-of-the-art U-Net type architectures in a novel self-supervised fashion to remove seismic noise. The training seismic data corresponds to a generous number of real seismic surveys. For the labelling, trace-wise corruption is applied to patches of the input data, so the CNN learns to predict the corrupted traces based on the receptive field. Our findings indicate that self-supervised learning using U-Net type architecture trained on real data is able to considerably remove both structured and unstructured seismic noise.
    • Composition and function of stress granules and P-bodies in plants.

      Kearly, Alyssa; Nelson, Andrew D L; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Chodasiewicz, Monika (Seminars in cell & developmental biology, Elsevier BV, 2022-12-01) [Article]
      Stress Granules (SGs) and Processing-bodies (P-bodies) are biomolecular condensates formed in the cell with the highly conserved purpose of maintaining balance between storage, translation, and degradation of mRNA. This balance is particularly important when cells are exposed to different environmental conditions and adjustments have to be made in order for plants to respond to and tolerate stressful conditions. While P-bodies are constitutively present in the cell, SG formation is a stress-induced event. Typically thought of as protein-RNA aggregates, SGs and P-bodies are formed by a process called liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), and both their function and composition are very dynamic. Both foci are known to contain proteins involved in translation, protein folding, and ATPase activity, alluding to their roles in regulating mRNA and protein expression levels. From an RNA perspective, SGs and P-bodies primarily consist of mRNAs, though long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have also been observed, and more focus is now being placed on the specific RNAs associated with these aggregates. Recently, metabolites such as nucleotides and amino acids have been reported in purified plant SGs with implications for the energetic dynamics of these condensates. Thus, even though the field of plant SGs and P-bodies is relatively nascent, significant progress has been made in understanding their composition and biological role in stress responses. In this review, we discuss the most recent discoveries centered around SG and P-body function and composition in plants.