Liu, Peng; Chen, Bingjie; Li, Zepeng; Bennett, Anthony; Sioud, Salim; Sarathy, Mani; Roberts, William L.(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier, 2019-08-24)[Article]
Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAH) have received increasing attention due to their toxic effect on human health. This study comprehensively investigates the evolution of OPAH chemistry at flame temperatures. Jet-stirred reactor (JSR) experiments with benzene/phenol/C2H2/N2 and benzene/C2H2/O2/N2 revealed that OPAH with oxygenated heterocycle can be formed by the addition of C2H2 at 1400 K. To further clarify the evolution of OPAH chemistry in soot systems, OPAH formation and decomposition reaction pathways and kinetic parameters have been theoretically investigated. The potential energy surfaces of 1-naphtholate and 2-naphtholate growth, and thermal decomposition reactions, were calculated by combining the density functional theory B3LYP/6–311+G(d,p) and CCSD(T)/cc-pvdz methods. The reaction rate coefficients in the temperature range of 800–2500 K and pressure range of 0.1–100 atm were calculated using RRKM theory by solving the master equations. The potential energy surface of C2H2+1-naphtholate and C2H2+2-naphtholate growth reactions showed that the O atom could be locked in a naphthofuran molecule with the formation of a C[sbnd]O[sbnd]C oxygenated heterocycle; and the reaction rates were determined by adding the C2H2 elementary step with the energy barrier of 26.0 and 19.9 kcal/mol, respectively. Thermal decomposition reactions of 1-naphtholate and 2-naphtholate yielded an indenyl radical and CO. The thermal decomposition reaction rates were significantly sensitive to the zig-zag site structure next to the C[dbnd]O bond. The decomposition rate of 1-naphtholate at 1500 K, with a zig-zag site near the C[dbnd]O bond, was 14.8 times lower than that of 2-naphtholate with no zig-zag site near the C[dbnd]O bond. Rate comparison results indicate that the C[dbnd]O functional group rapidly converts to a C[sbnd]O[sbnd]C functional group with the addition of C2H2. The formation, growth and thermal decomposition reactions of 1-naphtholate and 2-naphtholate were added to a detailed PAH mechanism to check the effect of OPAH reactions on PAH formation chemistry. The concentration profile of naphthalene predicted by the updated PAH mechanism was lower than current PAH mechanism predictions by 29%, indicating that the OPAH reactions had a significant effect on PAH formation chemistry, and should be included in the PAH mechanism. However, due to the relatively low concentration of OPAH compared to PAH, it is possible to ignore the correlation between OPAH and soot nucleation at flame temperatures; therefore an OPAH evolution pathway (PAH → incipient soot → OPAH formation on soot particle → selective thermal decomposition of OPAH), is proposed to explain the high content of OPAH molecules (e.g., 9,10-anthraquinone, benz(a)anthracene-7,12-dione, and benzanthrone) adsorbed on the soot particle.
Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yiran; Li, Zepeng; Bennett, Anthony; Lin, He; Sarathy, Mani; Roberts, William L.(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2019-01-31)[Article]
The growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) can proceed via multiple chemical mechanisms. The mechanism of naphthyl radical and vinylacetylene (CH) addition reaction has been systematically investigated in this computational study. A combination of DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p), CCSD/6-311+G(d,p) and CBS-QB3 methods were performed to calculate the potential energy surfaces. It revealed that the products, including phenanthrene, anthracene, a PAH with a five-membered ring structure, and PAH with a CH radical substitution, can be formed in A-1 (1-naphthyl)+CH and A-2 (2-naphthyl) +CH reaction networks. The reaction rate constants at 0.1-100 atm were evaluated by RRKM theory by solving the master equation in the temperature range of 800–2500 K, which showed that the rate constants of reactions A-1 (A-2)+CH→product+H are highly temperature-dependent but nearly pressure-independent. The distribution of products was investigated in a 0-D batch reactor, wherein the initial reactant concentrations were taken from experimental measurements. The results showed that adduct intermediates were the main products at low temperature (T < 1000 K), and the phenanthrene and PAH with CH radical substitution became the dominant products at temperatures where PAHs and soot form in flames (T > 1000 K). It was observed that a significant amount of phenanthrene is formed from PAH with a CH radical substitution with the assistance of H atom. Reaction pathway sensitivity analysis for the PAH radical+CH reaction system was performed and showed that the new benzene rings are more likely to be generated near the zig-zag edge surface site instead of the free edge. For the development of a PAH mechanism, the analogous treatment of rate constants for larger PAH radical + CH reaction system are discussed. The formation rate of naphthalene from the reaction of phenyl+CH was found to be very close to that of phenanthrene from the reaction of naphthyl+CH, suggesting that the analogous treatment of the rates is reasonable in PAH mechanisms.
Bisetti, Fabrizio; Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin; Steinmetz, Scott; Attili, Antonio; Roberts, William L.(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2018-07-09)[Article]
Coflow diffusion flames are a canonical laboratory-scale flame configuration, which is routinely employed in fundamental combustion studies on flame stabilization, chemical kinetics, and pollutants’ emissions. In particular, pressurized coflow flames are used to study the effect of pressure on soot formation. In this work, we explore the opportunity to scale sooting coflow flames at constant Reynolds and Grashof numbers as pressure increases. This is achieved by decreasing the bulk velocity and the diameter of the fuel nozzle with increasing pressure. Despite some minor departures from the ideal scaling due to the effect of radiative heat losses from soot, the coflow flames are shown to be self-similar to a very good approximation. By keeping the Reynolds and Grashof numbers constant, one obtains a set of pressurized flames, which have self-similar nondimensional flow fields. Self-similarity is observed experimentally via direct photography and documented thoroughly by direct numerical simulation of steady axisymmetric coflow flames of methane and air at pressures from 1 to 12 atm. Although the study does not include data on soot yields, the implications for soot formation are explored with emphasis on the field of scalar dissipation rate and on the residence time, temperature, and mixture fraction experienced by a parcel of fluid moving along the centerline and along a streamline on the flame's wing. We explain how the proposed approach to scaling pressurized flames facilitates the analysis of the effect of pressure on soot formation.
Li, Zepeng; Amin, Hafiz M.F.; Liu, Peng; Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk Ho; Roberts, William L.(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2018-09-16)[Article]
The effects of dimethyl ether (DME) addition to ethylene fuel on sooting tendencies with varying pressure were investigated in counterflow diffusion flames by using a laser scattering technique. Sooting limit maps were determined in the fuel (XF) and oxygen (XO) mole fraction plane, separating sooting and non-sooting regions. The results showed that when DME is mixed to ethylene, the sooting region was appreciably shrank, especially in the cases of soot formation/oxidation (SFO) flames as compared with the cases of soot formation (SF) flames. This indicated an inhibiting role of DME on sooting. An interesting observation was that the critical XO required for sooting initially decreased and then increased with the DME mixing ratio to ethylene β for the cases of SF flames, exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior. This implied a promoting role of DME on sooting when small amount of DME is mixed to ethylene. As the pressure increased, the sooting region generally expanded. Specifically, the range of β in promoting soot formation extended with pressure. This implies that a strategy in reducing soot by adding DME to ethylene at high pressures required a large amount of DME addition. To interpret the observed phenomena, kinetic simulations including reaction pathway and sensitivity analyses were conducted with the opposed-flow flames model using the KAUST-Aramco PAH Mech. The results showed that the thermal effect of DME addition on sooting tendency monotonically decreases with β. The chemical effect was found to be the main contributor to the DME addition effect on sooting tendency, resulting in the non-monotonic sooting limt behavior. The pathway analysis showed the role of methyl radicals generated from DME promoted incipient benzene ring formtion when small amount of DME was added, which can be attributed to the soot promoting role of DME addition for small β.
Lucchesi, Marco; Abdelgadir, Ahmed Gamaleldin; Attili, Antonio; Bisetti, Fabrizio(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2017-02-05)[Article]
A modeling framework based on Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is employed to simulate the evolution of the soot particle size distribution in turbulent sooting flames. The stochastic reactor describes the evolution of soot in fluid parcels following Lagrangian trajectories in a turbulent flow field. The trajectories are sampled from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a n-heptane turbulent nonpremixed flame. The DSMC method is validated against experimentally measured size distributions in laminar premixed flames and found to reproduce quantitatively the experimental results, including the appearance of the second mode at large aggregate sizes and the presence of a trough at mobility diameters in the range 3–8 nm. The model is then applied to the simulation of soot formation and growth in simplified configurations featuring a constant concentration of soot precursors and the evolution of the size distribution in time is found to depend on the intensity of the nucleation rate. Higher nucleation rates lead to a higher peak in number density and to the size distribution attaining its second mode sooner. The ensemble-averaged PSDF in the turbulent flame is computed from individual samples of the PSDF from large sets of Lagrangian trajectories. This statistical measure is equivalent to time-averaged, scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements in turbulent flames. Although individual trajectories display strong bimodality as in laminar flames, the ensemble-average PSDF possesses only one mode and a long, broad tail, which implies significant polydispersity induced by turbulence. Our results agree very well with SMPS measurements available in the literature. Conditioning on key features of the trajectory, such as mixture fraction or radial locations does not reduce the scatter in the size distributions and the ensemble-averaged PSDF remains broad. The results highlight and explain the important role of turbulence in broadening the size distribution of particles in turbulent sooting flames.
Park, Sungwoo; Wang, Yu; Chung, Suk Ho; Sarathy, Mani(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2017-02-05)[Article]
Gasoline surrogate fuels are widely used to understand the fundamental combustion properties of complex refinery gasoline fuels. In this study, the compositional effects on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation were investigated experimentally for gasoline surrogate mixtures comprising n-heptane, iso-octane, and toluene in counterflow diffusion flames. A comprehensive kinetic model for the gasoline surrogate mixtures was developed to accurately predict the fuel oxidation along with the formation of PAHs and soot in flames. This combined model was first tested against ignition delay times and laminar burning velocities data. The proposed model for the formation and growth of PAHs up to coronene (C24H12) was based on previous studies and was tested against existing and present new experimental data. Additionally, in the accompanied soot model, PAHs with sizes larger than (including) pyrene were used for the inception of soot particles, followed by particle coagulations and PAH condensation/chemical reactions on soot surfaces. The major pathways for the formation of PAHs were also identified for the surrogate mixtures. The model accurately captures the synergistic PAH formation characteristics observed experimentally for n-heptane/toluene and iso-octane/toluene binary mixtures. Furthermore, the present experimental and modeling results also elucidated different trends in the formation of larger PAHs and soot between binary n-heptane/iso-octane and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. Propargyl radicals (C3H3) were shown to be important in the formation and growth of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane mixtures when the iso-octane concentration increased; however, reactions involving benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) played a significant role in the formation of PAHs for n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene mixtures. These results indicated that the formation of PAHs and subsequently soot was strongly affected by the composition of gasoline surrogate mixtures.
Steinmetz, Scott; Fang, Tiegang; Roberts, William L.(Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2016-05-07)[Article]
Soot particle size is investigated in laminar nitrogen-diluted ethylene coflow diffusion flames at 4, 8, 12 and 16 atm. Line of sight attenuation and scattering are used to measure two-dimensional soot volume fraction and particle size fields for the first time at elevated pressures. Soot volume fraction dependence on pressure is consistent with the observations of similar studies, scaling approximately with the square of pressure. Scattering intensity is analyzed through Rayleigh and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans polydisperse fractal aggregate theories to provide two estimates of particle size. An increase in overall particle sizes with pressure is found, consistent with similar one-dimensional studies. Particle diameters in the annulus of the flame increase faster with pressure than those on centerline. Contrary to previous studies, the dependence of particle size on pressure was found to taper off between 8 and 12 atm, with little observed growth beyond 12 atm. The measurements provide additional data for one of the International Sooting Flame (ISF) workshop's target pressurized flames.
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