Reliable detection of traffic congestion provides pertinent information for improving safety and comfort by alerting the driver to crowded roads or providing useful information for rapid decision-making. This paper addresses the problem of road traffic congestion estimation and detection from a statistical approach. First, a piecewise switched linear traffic model (PWSL)-based observer is introduced. The proposed hybrid observer (HO) estimates the unmeasured traffic density, thus reducing the cost of implementing and maintenance sensors and measurements devices. Here, the observer gains of each mode are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Second, a novel method for efficiently monitoring traffic congestion is proposed by combining the proposed HO with a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test. Also, an exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) filter is applied to the residual data to reduce high-frequency noise. Thus, as the EWMA filter, aggregates all of the information from past and actual samples in the decision rule, it extends the congestion detection abilities of the GLR test to the detection of incipient changes. This study shows that a better performance is achieved when GLR is applied to filtered data than to unfiltered data. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified on traffic data from the four-lane State Route 60 (SR-60) and the three lanes Interstate 210 (I-210) in California freeways. Results show the efficacy of the proposed HO-based EWMA-GLR method to monitor traffic congestions. Also, the proposed approach is compared to that of the conventional Shewhart and EWMA approaches and found better performance.
One of the greatest challenges in a photovoltaic solar power generation is to keep the designed photovoltaic systems working with the desired operating efficiency. Towards this goal, fault detection in photovoltaic plants is essential to guarantee their reliability, safety, and to maximize operating profitability and avoid expensive maintenance. In this context, a model-based anomaly detection approach is proposed for monitoring the DC side of photovoltaic systems and temporary shading. First, a model based on the one-diode model is constructed to mimic the characteristics of the monitored photovoltaic array. Then, a one-class Support Vector Machine (1SVM) procedure is applied to residuals from the simulation model for fault detection. The choice of 1SVM approach to quantify the dissimilarity between normal and abnormal features is motivated by its good capability to handle nonlinear features and do not make assumptions on the underlying data distribution. Experimental results over real data from a 9.54 kWp grid-connected plant in Algiers, show the superior detection efficiency of the proposed approach compared with other binary clustering schemes (i.e., K-means, Birch, mean-shift, expectation–maximization, and agglomerative clustering).
Reliable and efficient detection of faults in photovoltaic systems provides pertinent information for improving their safety and productivity. However, data gathered from photovoltaic systems are generally tainted with a large amount of noise, which can swamp the most relevant features necessary to detect faults, and ultimately degrades fault detection capability of the monitoring system. Therefore, it is crucial to design a robust fault detection approach to deal with the problem of measurement noise in the data. The purpose of this study is to design a robust fault detection scheme to monitor the direct current side of a photovoltaic system and able to deal with the problem of measurement noise in the data by using multiscale representation. Towards this end, a framework merging the benefits of multiscale representation of data and those of the exponentially-weighted moving average scheme to suitably detect faults is proposed and used in the context of fault detection in photovoltaic systems. Here, multiscale representation of data using wavelets, an efficient feature/noise separation technique, is used to enhance fault detection performance by reducing noise effect and false alarms. First, a simulation model for the monitored photovoltaic array is built. Then residuals from the simulation model are used as the input for the designed scheme for fault detection. A real data from a 9.54 kWp photovoltaic plant in Algiers, Algeria is used to evaluate the effectiveness proposed method. Also, the performance of the proposed chart to that of the conventional exponentially-weighted moving average chart has been compared and found improved sensitivity to faults and robustness to noises.
Faults in photovoltaic (PV) systems, which can result in energy loss, system shutdown or even serious safety breaches, are often difficult to avoid. Fault detection in such systems is imperative to improve their reliability, productivity, safety and efficiency. Here, an innovative model-based fault-detection approach for early detection of shading of PV modules and faults on the direct current (DC) side of PV systems is proposed. This approach combines the flexibility, and simplicity of a one-diode model with the extended capacity of an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart to detect incipient changes in a PV system. The one-diode model, which is easily calibrated due to its limited calibration parameters, is used to predict the healthy PV array's maximum power coordinates of current, voltage and power using measured temperatures and irradiances. Residuals, which capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions of the one-diode model, are generated and used as fault indicators. Then, the EWMA monitoring chart is applied on the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the one-diode model to detect and identify the type of fault. Actual data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria, are used to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results show that the proposed approach successfully monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects temporary shading.
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