Weng, Yang; Guo, Yujian; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; GUO, Jenhwa; Ooi, Boon S.(Journal of Lightwave Technology, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
The use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is highly desirable for collecting data from seafloor sensor platforms within a close range. With the recent innovations in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) for deep-sea exploration, UWOC could be used in conjunction with AUVs for high-speed data uploads near the surface. In addition to absorption and scattering effects, UWOC undergoes scintillation induced by temperature- and salinity-related turbulence. However, studies on scintillation have been limited to emulating channels with uniform temperature and salinity gradients, rather than incorporating the effects of turbulent motion. Such turbulent flow results in an ocean mixing process that degrades optical communication. This study presents a turbulent model for investigating the impact of vehicle-motion-induced turbulence via the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. This scintillation-related parameter offers a representation of the change in the refractive index (RI) due to the turbulent flow and ocean mixing. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to validate the impact of turbulent flow on optical scintillation. In experimental measurements, the scintillation index (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are similar with (SI = 0.4824, SNR = 5.56) and without (SI = 0.4823, SNR = 5.87) water mixing under uniform temperature channels. By introducing a temperature gradient of 4 °C, SI (SNR) with and without turbulent flow changed to 0.5417 (5.06) and 0.8790 (3.40), respectively. The experimental results show a similar trend with the simulation results. Thus, turbulent flow was shown to significantly impact underwater optical communications.
Shamim, Md Hosne Mobarok; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
Single and multiple wavelength laser systems are presented that employ self-injection locked InGaN/GaN green laser diodes in an external cavity configuration with a partially reflective mirror. A stable and simultaneous locking of up to four longitudinal Fabry–Perot modes of the system cavity is demonstrated with appreciable signal-to-noise-ratio of ∼13 dB and average mode linewidth of ∼150 pm. The multi-wavelength spectrum exhibited a flat-top emission with nearly equal power distribution among the modes and an analogous mode spacing of ∼0.5 nm. This first demonstration of multi-wavelength generation source is highly attractive in a multitude of cross-disciplinary field applications besides asserting the prospects of narrow wavelength spaced multiplexed visible light communication. Moreover, an extended two-stage self-injection locked near single wavelength visible laser system is also presented. An ultra-narrow linewidth of ∼34 pm is realized at 525.05 nm locked wavelength from this innovative system, with ∼20 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio; thus signifying a paradigm shift toward semiconductor lasers for near single lasing wavelength generation, which is presently dominated by other kinds of laser technologies.
Shen, Chao; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Alatawi, Abdullah; Zou, Peng; Chi, Nan; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
Group-III-nitride superluminescent diodes (SLDs) are emerging as light sources for white lighting and visible light communications (VLC) owing to their droop-free, low speckle noise and large modulation bandwidth properties. In this study, we discuss the development of GaN-based visible SLDs, and analyze their electro-optical properties by studying the optical power-bandwidth products (PBPs) and injection current densities. The significant progress in blue SLDs and their applications for white light VLC is highlighted. A blue SLD, with an optical power of > 100 mW and large PBP of 536 mW.nm, is utilized to generate white light, resulting in a high CRI of 88.2. In a modulation experiment designed for an SLD-based VLC system, an on-off keying scheme exhibits a 1.2 Gbps data rate, with a bit error rate (BER) of 1.8 × 10-3, which satisfies the forward error correction (FEC) criteria. A high data rate of 3.4 Gbps is achieved using the same SLD transmitter, by applying the 16-QAM discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation scheme for high-speed white light communication. The results reported here unequivocally point to the significant performance and versatility that GaN-based SLDs could offer for beyond-5G implementation, where white lighting and high spectral efficiency VLC systems can be simultaneously implemented.
Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01)[Article]
We implemented a tunable dual-longitudinal-mode spacing InGaN/GaN green (521–528 nm) laser diode by employing a self-injection locking scheme that is based on an external cavity configuration and utilizing either a high-or partial-reflecting mirror. A tunable longitudinal-mode spacing of 0.20 – 5.96 nm was accomplished, corresponding to a calculated frequency difference of 0.22–6.51 THz, as a result. The influence of operating current and temperature on the system performance was also investigated with a measured maximum side-mode-suppression ratio of 30.4 dB and minimum dual-mode peak optical power ratio of 0.03 dB. To shed light on the operation of the dual-wavelength device arising from the tunable longitudinal-mode spacing mechanism, the underlying physics is qualitatively described. To the best of our knowledge, this tunable longitudinal-mode-spacing dual-wavelength device is novel, and has potential applications as an alternative means in millimeter wave and THz generation, thus possibly addressing the terahertz technology gap. The dual-wavelength operation is also attractive for high-resolution imaging and broadband wireless communication.
Alkhazragi, Omar; Sun, Xiaobin; Zuba, Viktor; Amhoud, El Mehdi; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Jones, Burton; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Photonics Journal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-22)[Article]
To allow for reliable wireless optical links in realistic underwater environments, we study the dependence of turbulence-induced fading on the wavelength using a laser-based white-light interrogator in emulated realistic conditions. We experimentally show that the scintillation index decreases significantly with the increase of wavelength. The results are verified for longer distances using a Monte Carlo simulation. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the use of longer wavelengths lowers the bit error ratio by as much as three orders of magnitude. We conclude that using green light is more reliable in turbulent channels than blue. The correlation between different wavelengths under turbulence is studied, which was made possible by the use of the laser-based white-light interrogator.
Stegenburgs, Edgars; Bertoncini, Andrea; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Liberale, Carlo; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Communications Magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-22)[Article]
We report the use of 3D-printed microscale spiral phase plates to generate orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying beams. We confirm that the generated beams have high purity, and we have successfully tested them to convey data signals with low bit error rates at the wavelength of 980 nm. This method will open new opportunities for generating OAM beams for many applications in optical communications, including free-space optics, as well as underwater, chip-to-chip, and quantum communications.
Janjua, Bilal; Priante, Davide; Prabaswara, Aditya; Alanazi, Lafi M.; Zhao, Chao; Alhamoud, Abdullah; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Rahman, Abdul; Alyamani, Ahmed; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Photonics Journal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018-03-16)[Article]
Group-III nitride-based ultraviolet (UV) quantum-disks (Qdisks) nanowires (NWs) light-emitting diodes grown on silicon substrates offer a scalable, environment-friendly, compact, and low-cost solution for numerous applications such as solid-state lighting, spectroscopy, and biomedical. However, the internal quantum efficiency, injection efficiency, and extraction efficiency need to be further improved. The focus of this paper encompasses investigations based on structural optimization, device simulation, and device reliability. To optimize a UV-A (320-400 nm) device structure we utilize the self-assembled quantum-disk-NWs with varying quantum-disks thickness to study carrier separation in active-region and implement an improved p-contact-layer to increase output power. By simulation, we found a 100° improvement in the direct recombination rate for samples with thicker Qdisks thickness of 1.2 nm compared to the sample with 0.6 nm-thick Qdisks. Moreover, the sample with graded top Mg-doped AlGaN layer in conjunction with thin Mg-doped GaN layer shows 10° improvement in the output power compared to the samples with thicker top Mg-doped GaN absorbing contact layer. A fitting with ABC model revealed the increase in non-radiative recombination centers in the active region after a soft stress-test. This work aims to shed light on the research efforts required for furthering the UV NWs LED research for practical applications.
Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Alatawi, Abdullah; Wong, Ka Chun; Tangi, Malleswararao; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Stegenburgs, Edgars; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Ng, Tien Khee; Rahman, Abdul; Alyamani, Ahmed; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Photonics Journal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018-02-15)[Article]
A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of Y2O3-doped HfO2 (YDH)/SiO2 layers with high reflectivity spectrum centered at a wavelength of ~240 nm is deposited using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Before the DBR deposition, optical properties for a single layer of YDH, SiO2, and HfO2 thin films were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry. To investigate the performance of YDH as a material for the high refractive index layer in the DBR, a comparison of its optical properties was made with HfO2 thin films. Due to larger optical bandgap, the YDH thin films demonstrated higher transparency, lower extinction coefficient, and lower absorption coefficient in the UV-C regime (especially for wavelengths below 250 nm) compared to the HfO2 thin films. The deposited YDH/SiO2 DBR consisting of 15 periods achieved a reflectivity higher than 99.9% at the wavelength of ~240 nm with a stopband of ~50 nm. The high reflectivity and broad stopband of YDH/SiO2 DBRs will enable further advancement of various photonic devices such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and resonant-cavity photodetectors operating in the UV-C wavelength regime.
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