Weng, Yang; Guo, Yujian; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; GUO, Jenhwa; Ooi, Boon S.(Journal of Lightwave Technology, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
The use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is highly desirable for collecting data from seafloor sensor platforms within a close range. With the recent innovations in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) for deep-sea exploration, UWOC could be used in conjunction with AUVs for high-speed data uploads near the surface. In addition to absorption and scattering effects, UWOC undergoes scintillation induced by temperature- and salinity-related turbulence. However, studies on scintillation have been limited to emulating channels with uniform temperature and salinity gradients, rather than incorporating the effects of turbulent motion. Such turbulent flow results in an ocean mixing process that degrades optical communication. This study presents a turbulent model for investigating the impact of vehicle-motion-induced turbulence via the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. This scintillation-related parameter offers a representation of the change in the refractive index (RI) due to the turbulent flow and ocean mixing. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to validate the impact of turbulent flow on optical scintillation. In experimental measurements, the scintillation index (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are similar with (SI = 0.4824, SNR = 5.56) and without (SI = 0.4823, SNR = 5.87) water mixing under uniform temperature channels. By introducing a temperature gradient of 4 °C, SI (SNR) with and without turbulent flow changed to 0.5417 (5.06) and 0.8790 (3.40), respectively. The experimental results show a similar trend with the simulation results. Thus, turbulent flow was shown to significantly impact underwater optical communications.
Shamim, Md Hosne Mobarok; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
Single and multiple wavelength laser systems are presented that employ self-injection locked InGaN/GaN green laser diodes in an external cavity configuration with a partially reflective mirror. A stable and simultaneous locking of up to four longitudinal Fabry–Perot modes of the system cavity is demonstrated with appreciable signal-to-noise-ratio of ∼13 dB and average mode linewidth of ∼150 pm. The multi-wavelength spectrum exhibited a flat-top emission with nearly equal power distribution among the modes and an analogous mode spacing of ∼0.5 nm. This first demonstration of multi-wavelength generation source is highly attractive in a multitude of cross-disciplinary field applications besides asserting the prospects of narrow wavelength spaced multiplexed visible light communication. Moreover, an extended two-stage self-injection locked near single wavelength visible laser system is also presented. An ultra-narrow linewidth of ∼34 pm is realized at 525.05 nm locked wavelength from this innovative system, with ∼20 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio; thus signifying a paradigm shift toward semiconductor lasers for near single lasing wavelength generation, which is presently dominated by other kinds of laser technologies.
Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01)[Article]
We implemented a tunable dual-longitudinal-mode spacing InGaN/GaN green (521–528 nm) laser diode by employing a self-injection locking scheme that is based on an external cavity configuration and utilizing either a high-or partial-reflecting mirror. A tunable longitudinal-mode spacing of 0.20 – 5.96 nm was accomplished, corresponding to a calculated frequency difference of 0.22–6.51 THz, as a result. The influence of operating current and temperature on the system performance was also investigated with a measured maximum side-mode-suppression ratio of 30.4 dB and minimum dual-mode peak optical power ratio of 0.03 dB. To shed light on the operation of the dual-wavelength device arising from the tunable longitudinal-mode spacing mechanism, the underlying physics is qualitatively described. To the best of our knowledge, this tunable longitudinal-mode-spacing dual-wavelength device is novel, and has potential applications as an alternative means in millimeter wave and THz generation, thus possibly addressing the terahertz technology gap. The dual-wavelength operation is also attractive for high-resolution imaging and broadband wireless communication.
Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Applied Physics Express, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 2019-03-27)[Article]
We demonstrate narrow-line green laser emission at 513.85 nm with a linewidth of 31 pm and side-mode suppression ratio of 36.9 dB, operating under continuous-wave injection at room temperature. A high-order (40th) distributed-feedback surface grating fabricated on multimode InGaN-based green laser diodes via a focused ion beam produces resolution-limited, single-mode lasing with an optical power of 14 mW, lasing threshold of 7.27 kA cm−2, and maximum slope efficiency of 0.32 W A−1. Our realization of narrow-line green laser diodes opens a pathway toward efficient optical communications, sensing, and atomic clocks.
Kang, Chun Hong; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Alkhazragi, Omar; Zhang, Huafan; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Guo, Yujian; Mitra, Somak; Shen, Chao; Roqan, Iman S.; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2019-10-08)[Article]
Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) can offer reliable and secure connectivity for enabling future internet-of-underwater-things (IoUT), owing to its unlicensed spectrum and high transmission speed. However, a critical bottleneck lies in the strict requirement of pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), for effective recovery of modulated optical signals at the receiver end. A large-area, high bandwidth, and wide-angle-of-view photoreceiver is therefore crucial for establishing a high-speed yet reliable communication link under non-directional pointing in a turbulent underwater environment. In this work, we demonstrated a large-area, of up to a few tens of cm2, photoreceiver design based on ultraviolet(UV)-to-blue color-converting plastic scintillating fibers, and yet offering high 3-dB bandwidth of up to 86.13 MHz. Tapping on the large modulation bandwidth, we demonstrated a high data rate of 250 Mbps at bit-error ratio (BER) of 2.2 × 10−3 using non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) 210-1 data stream, a 375-nm laser-based communication link over the 1.15-m water channel. This proof-of-concept demonstration opens the pathway for revolutionizing the photodetection scheme in UWOC, and for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space optical communication.
Kang, Chun Hong; Dursun, Ibrahim; Liu, Guangyu; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sun, Xiaobin; Kong, Meiwei; Pan, Jun; Maity, Partha; Ooi, Ee-Ning; Ng, Tien Khee; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.(Light: Science & Applications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-16)[Article]
Optical wireless communication (OWC) using the ultra-broad spectrum of the visible-to-ultraviolet (UV) wavelength region remains a vital field of research for mitigating the saturated bandwidth of radio-frequency (RF) communication. However, the lack of an efficient UV photodetection methodology hinders the development of UV-based communication. The key technological impediment is related to the low UV-photon absorption in existing silicon photodetectors, which offer low-cost and mature platforms. To address this technology gap, we report a hybrid Si-based photodetection scheme by incorporating CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and a fast photoluminescence (PL) decay time as a UV-to-visible colour-converting layer for high-speed solar-blind UV communication. The facile formation of drop-cast CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs leads to a high PLQY of up to ~73% and strong absorption in the UV region. With the addition of the NC layer, a nearly threefold improvement in the responsivity and an increase of ~25% in the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the solar-blind region compared to a commercial silicon-based photodetector were observed. Moreover, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements demonstrated a decay time of 4.5 ns under a 372-nm UV excitation source, thus elucidating the potential of this layer as a fast colour-converting layer. A high data rate of up to 34 Mbps in solar-blind communication was achieved using the hybrid CsPbBr3–silicon photodetection scheme in conjunction with a 278-nm UVC light-emitting diode (LED). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated high-speed photoreceiver design of a composition-tuneable perovskite-based phosphor and a low-cost silicon-based photodetector for UV communication.
Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Shemis, Mohamed; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(Optics Communications, Elsevier B.V., 2019-05-22)[Article]
In this work, self-injection and external-injection in ∼450 nm InGaN/GaN blue and ∼650 nm InGaP/AlGaInP red diode lasers are investigated. A distinct locking characteristic is observed in the self-injection case with small 19 cm cavity length, demonstrating enhanced ∼2.34 and ∼2.07 GHz 3-dB bandwidths, corresponding to a factor of ∼1.4 and ∼1.1 improvement, and reduced ∼60 and ∼80 pm spectral linewidths, for the blue and the red lasers, respectively. Moreover, this short external cavity self-injection locked system exhibited superior performance by a factor of 1.1–1.3 compared to the long cavity (26 cm) configuration. Conversely, the external optical injection exhibited weak locking signature with improved linewidths by a factor of ∼1.6–2.8 and reaching as small as ∼70 and ∼87 pm for the blue laser, respectively, while almost doubling in the peak powers. Later, on–off keying modulation technique based data transmission rates of up to 3.5 and 4.5 Gb/s are demonstrated on free-running blue and red laser diodes, respectively, employing an in-house laser diode mount based system. Moreover, owing to the bandwidth limitation of the optically injected systems, successful transmission of up to 2 Gb/s is demonstrated with better performance compared to the respective free-running cases, in particular, the external-optically injected system demonstrated more than double improvement in the bit-error-rate.
Alatawi, Abdullah; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Kang, Chun Hong; Shen, Chao; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Albadri, Abdulrahman M.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-09-25)[Article]
We demonstrated a high-power (474 mW) blue superluminescent diode (SLD) on c-plane GaN-substrate for speckle-free solid-state lighting (SSL), and high-speed visible light communication (VLC) link. The device, emitting at 442 nm, showed a large spectral bandwidth of 6.5 nm at an optical power of 105 mW. By integrating a YAG-phosphor-plate to the SLD, a CRI of 85.1 and CCT of 3392 K were measured, thus suitable for solid-state lighting. The SLD shows a relatively large 3-dB modulation bandwidth of >400 MHz, while a record high data rate of 1.45 Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) link has been achieved below forward-error correction (FEC) limit under non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. Our results suggest that SLD is a promising alternative for simultaneous speckle-free white lighting and Gbps data communication dual functionalities.
Shamim, Md Hosne Mobarok; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(Optics Letters, The Optical Society, 2018-10-08)[Article]
We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first employment of a self-injection locking scheme for the demonstration of a tunable InGaN/GaN semiconductor laser diode. We have achieved a 7.11 nm (521.10–528.21 nm) tunability in a green color with different injection currents and temperatures. The system exhibited mode spectral linewidth as narrow as ∼69 pm and a side mode suppression ratio as high as ∼28 dB, with a maximum optical power of ∼16.7 mW. In the entire tuning window, extending beyond 520 nm, a spectral linewidth of ≤100 pm, high power, and stable performance were consistently achieved, making this, to the best of our knowledge, the first-of-its-kind compact tunable laser system attractive for spectroscopy, imaging, sensing systems, and visible light communication.
Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Lee, Changmin; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; El-Desouki, Munir M.; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2018-02-14)[Article]
GaN-based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and its integration with laser diode (LD) is an essential building block yet to be demonstrated for III-nitride photonic integrated circuits (PICs) at visible wavelength. This paper presents the InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) based dual-section LD consisting of integrated amplifier and laser gain regions fabricated on a semipolar GaN substrate. The threshold current in the laser gain region was favorably reduced from 229mA to 135mA at SOA driving voltages, VSOA, of 0V and 6.25V, respectively. The amplification effect was measured based on a large gain of 5.7 dB at VSOA = 6.25V from the increased optical output power of 8.2 mW to 30.5 mW. Such integrated amplifier can be modulated to achieve Gbps data communication using on-off keying technique. The monolithically integrated amplifier-LD paves the way towards the III-nitride on-chip photonic system, providing a compact, low-cost, and multi-functional solution for applications such as smart lighting and visible light communications.
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