Weng, Yang; Guo, Yujian; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; GUO, Jenhwa; Ooi, Boon S.(Journal of Lightwave Technology, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
The use of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is highly desirable for collecting data from seafloor sensor platforms within a close range. With the recent innovations in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) for deep-sea exploration, UWOC could be used in conjunction with AUVs for high-speed data uploads near the surface. In addition to absorption and scattering effects, UWOC undergoes scintillation induced by temperature- and salinity-related turbulence. However, studies on scintillation have been limited to emulating channels with uniform temperature and salinity gradients, rather than incorporating the effects of turbulent motion. Such turbulent flow results in an ocean mixing process that degrades optical communication. This study presents a turbulent model for investigating the impact of vehicle-motion-induced turbulence via the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate. This scintillation-related parameter offers a representation of the change in the refractive index (RI) due to the turbulent flow and ocean mixing. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to validate the impact of turbulent flow on optical scintillation. In experimental measurements, the scintillation index (SI) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are similar with (SI = 0.4824, SNR = 5.56) and without (SI = 0.4823, SNR = 5.87) water mixing under uniform temperature channels. By introducing a temperature gradient of 4 °C, SI (SNR) with and without turbulent flow changed to 0.5417 (5.06) and 0.8790 (3.40), respectively. The experimental results show a similar trend with the simulation results. Thus, turbulent flow was shown to significantly impact underwater optical communications.
Shamim, Md Hosne Mobarok; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
Single and multiple wavelength laser systems are presented that employ self-injection locked InGaN/GaN green laser diodes in an external cavity configuration with a partially reflective mirror. A stable and simultaneous locking of up to four longitudinal Fabry–Perot modes of the system cavity is demonstrated with appreciable signal-to-noise-ratio of ∼13 dB and average mode linewidth of ∼150 pm. The multi-wavelength spectrum exhibited a flat-top emission with nearly equal power distribution among the modes and an analogous mode spacing of ∼0.5 nm. This first demonstration of multi-wavelength generation source is highly attractive in a multitude of cross-disciplinary field applications besides asserting the prospects of narrow wavelength spaced multiplexed visible light communication. Moreover, an extended two-stage self-injection locked near single wavelength visible laser system is also presented. An ultra-narrow linewidth of ∼34 pm is realized at 525.05 nm locked wavelength from this innovative system, with ∼20 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio; thus signifying a paradigm shift toward semiconductor lasers for near single lasing wavelength generation, which is presently dominated by other kinds of laser technologies.
Shen, Chao; Holguin Lerma, Jorge Alberto; Alatawi, Abdullah; Zou, Peng; Chi, Nan; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019)[Article]
Group-III-nitride superluminescent diodes (SLDs) are emerging as light sources for white lighting and visible light communications (VLC) owing to their droop-free, low speckle noise and large modulation bandwidth properties. In this study, we discuss the development of GaN-based visible SLDs, and analyze their electro-optical properties by studying the optical power-bandwidth products (PBPs) and injection current densities. The significant progress in blue SLDs and their applications for white light VLC is highlighted. A blue SLD, with an optical power of > 100 mW and large PBP of 536 mW.nm, is utilized to generate white light, resulting in a high CRI of 88.2. In a modulation experiment designed for an SLD-based VLC system, an on-off keying scheme exhibits a 1.2 Gbps data rate, with a bit error rate (BER) of 1.8 × 10-3, which satisfies the forward error correction (FEC) criteria. A high data rate of 3.4 Gbps is achieved using the same SLD transmitter, by applying the 16-QAM discrete multi-tone (DMT) modulation scheme for high-speed white light communication. The results reported here unequivocally point to the significant performance and versatility that GaN-based SLDs could offer for beyond-5G implementation, where white lighting and high spectral efficiency VLC systems can be simultaneously implemented.
Ashry, Islam; Mao, Yuan; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Hveding, Frode; Arsalan, Muhammad; Ooi, Boon S.(Applied Optics, The Optical Society, 2019-06-14)[Article]
We experimentally introduce a normalized differential method to enhance the time domain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an optical fiber distributed acoustic sensor (DAS). The reported method is calibrated against the typical differential method in noisy DAS systems, including those utilizing a relatively wide linewidth laser or few-mode fiber. In these two systems, the normalized differential method respectively identifies the position information of various vibration events with 1.7 dB and 0.53 dB SNR improvement. We further demonstrate the ability to locate positions along a fiber that are subjected to vibrations of frequencies higher than the theoretical maximum, but without determining these frequencies.
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