Kang, Chun Hong; Liu, Guangyu; Lee, Changmin; Alkhazragi, Omar; Wagstaff, Jonathan M.; Li, Kuang-Hui; Alhawaj, Fatimah; Ng, Tien Khee; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; DenBaars, Steven P.; Ooi, Boon S.(Applied Physics Express, Japan Society of Applied Physics, 2019-11-19)[Article]
This paper investigated the use of semipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well based micro-photodetectors (μPDs) as the optical receiver for visible light communication (VLC). The fabricated semipolar μPDs exhibited a low dark current of 1.6 pA at −10 V, a responsivity of 0.191 A W−1, and a −3 dB modulation bandwidth of 347 MHz. A high data rate of up to 1.55 Gbit s−1 was achievable by utilizing the extended bandwidth of more than −10 dB, and based on a straight-forward non-return-to-zero on–off keying modulation scheme. This development demonstrated the feasibility of wavelength-selective detection scheme using semipolar μPD for high-data-capacity VLC systems.
Kong, Meiwei; Lin, Jiaming; Kang, Chun Hong; Shen, Chao; Guo, Yujian; Sun, Xiaobin; Sait, Mohammed; Weng, Yang; Zhang, Huafan; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2019-11-11)[Article]
Enhancing robustness and energy efficiency is critical in visible light communication (VLC) to support large-scale data traffic and connectivity of smart devices in the era of fifth-generation networks. To this end, we demonstrate that amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film solar cells with a high light absorption coefficient are particularly useful for simultaneous robust signal detection and efficient energy harvesting under the condition of weak light in this study. Moreover, a first-generation prototype called AquaE-lite is developed that consists of an a-Si thin-film solar panel and receiver circuits, which can detect weak light as low as 1 µW/cm2. Using AquaE-lite and a white-light laser, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing signals with data rates of 1 Mb/s and 908.2 kb/s are achieved over a 20-m long-distance air channel and 2.4-m turbid outdoor pool water, respectively, under the condition of strong background light. The reliable VLC system based on energy-efficient a-Si thin-film solar cells opens a new pathway for future satellite-air-ground-ocean optical wireless communication to realize connectivity among millions of Internet of Things devices.
Kang, Chun Hong; Dursun, Ibrahim; Liu, Guangyu; Sinatra, Lutfan; Sun, Xiaobin; Kong, Meiwei; Pan, Jun; Maity, Partha; Ooi, Ee-Ning; Ng, Tien Khee; Mohammed, Omar F.; Bakr, Osman; Ooi, Boon S.(Light: Science & Applications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-10-16)[Article]
Optical wireless communication (OWC) using the ultra-broad spectrum of the visible-to-ultraviolet (UV) wavelength region remains a vital field of research for mitigating the saturated bandwidth of radio-frequency (RF) communication. However, the lack of an efficient UV photodetection methodology hinders the development of UV-based communication. The key technological impediment is related to the low UV-photon absorption in existing silicon photodetectors, which offer low-cost and mature platforms. To address this technology gap, we report a hybrid Si-based photodetection scheme by incorporating CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) with a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and a fast photoluminescence (PL) decay time as a UV-to-visible colour-converting layer for high-speed solar-blind UV communication. The facile formation of drop-cast CsPbBr3 perovskite NCs leads to a high PLQY of up to ~73% and strong absorption in the UV region. With the addition of the NC layer, a nearly threefold improvement in the responsivity and an increase of ~25% in the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the solar-blind region compared to a commercial silicon-based photodetector were observed. Moreover, time-resolved photoluminescence measurements demonstrated a decay time of 4.5 ns under a 372-nm UV excitation source, thus elucidating the potential of this layer as a fast colour-converting layer. A high data rate of up to 34 Mbps in solar-blind communication was achieved using the hybrid CsPbBr3–silicon photodetection scheme in conjunction with a 278-nm UVC light-emitting diode (LED). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of an integrated high-speed photoreceiver design of a composition-tuneable perovskite-based phosphor and a low-cost silicon-based photodetector for UV communication.
Kang, Chun Hong; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Alkhazragi, Omar; Zhang, Huafan; Subedi, Ram Chandra; Guo, Yujian; Mitra, Somak; Shen, Chao; Roqan, Iman S.; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.(Optics Express, The Optical Society, 2019-10-08)[Article]
Underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) can offer reliable and secure connectivity for enabling future internet-of-underwater-things (IoUT), owing to its unlicensed spectrum and high transmission speed. However, a critical bottleneck lies in the strict requirement of pointing, acquisition, and tracking (PAT), for effective recovery of modulated optical signals at the receiver end. A large-area, high bandwidth, and wide-angle-of-view photoreceiver is therefore crucial for establishing a high-speed yet reliable communication link under non-directional pointing in a turbulent underwater environment. In this work, we demonstrated a large-area, of up to a few tens of cm2, photoreceiver design based on ultraviolet(UV)-to-blue color-converting plastic scintillating fibers, and yet offering high 3-dB bandwidth of up to 86.13 MHz. Tapping on the large modulation bandwidth, we demonstrated a high data rate of 250 Mbps at bit-error ratio (BER) of 2.2 × 10−3 using non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) 210-1 data stream, a 375-nm laser-based communication link over the 1.15-m water channel. This proof-of-concept demonstration opens the pathway for revolutionizing the photodetection scheme in UWOC, and for non-line-of-sight (NLOS) free-space optical communication.
Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Alkhazragi, Omar; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa(IEEE Access, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-10-01)[Article]
We implemented a tunable dual-longitudinal-mode spacing InGaN/GaN green (521–528 nm) laser diode by employing a self-injection locking scheme that is based on an external cavity configuration and utilizing either a high-or partial-reflecting mirror. A tunable longitudinal-mode spacing of 0.20 – 5.96 nm was accomplished, corresponding to a calculated frequency difference of 0.22–6.51 THz, as a result. The influence of operating current and temperature on the system performance was also investigated with a measured maximum side-mode-suppression ratio of 30.4 dB and minimum dual-mode peak optical power ratio of 0.03 dB. To shed light on the operation of the dual-wavelength device arising from the tunable longitudinal-mode spacing mechanism, the underlying physics is qualitatively described. To the best of our knowledge, this tunable longitudinal-mode-spacing dual-wavelength device is novel, and has potential applications as an alternative means in millimeter wave and THz generation, thus possibly addressing the terahertz technology gap. The dual-wavelength operation is also attractive for high-resolution imaging and broadband wireless communication.
Alkhazragi, Omar; Sun, Xiaobin; Zuba, Viktor; Amhoud, El Mehdi; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Jones, Burton; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Photonics Journal, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-22)[Article]
To allow for reliable wireless optical links in realistic underwater environments, we study the dependence of turbulence-induced fading on the wavelength using a laser-based white-light interrogator in emulated realistic conditions. We experimentally show that the scintillation index decreases significantly with the increase of wavelength. The results are verified for longer distances using a Monte Carlo simulation. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate that the use of longer wavelengths lowers the bit error ratio by as much as three orders of magnitude. We conclude that using green light is more reliable in turbulent channels than blue. The correlation between different wavelengths under turbulence is studied, which was made possible by the use of the laser-based white-light interrogator.
Stegenburgs, Edgars; Bertoncini, Andrea; Trichili, Abderrahmen; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Liberale, Carlo; Ooi, Boon S.(IEEE Communications Magazine, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-08-22)[Article]
We report the use of 3D-printed microscale spiral phase plates to generate orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying beams. We confirm that the generated beams have high purity, and we have successfully tested them to convey data signals with low bit error rates at the wavelength of 980 nm. This method will open new opportunities for generating OAM beams for many applications in optical communications, including free-space optics, as well as underwater, chip-to-chip, and quantum communications.
Ashry, Islam; Mao, Yuan; Alias, Mohd Sharizal; Ng, Tien Khee; Hveding, Frode; Arsalan, Muhammad; Ooi, Boon S.(Applied Optics, The Optical Society, 2019-06-14)[Article]
We experimentally introduce a normalized differential method to enhance the time domain signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an optical fiber distributed acoustic sensor (DAS). The reported method is calibrated against the typical differential method in noisy DAS systems, including those utilizing a relatively wide linewidth laser or few-mode fiber. In these two systems, the normalized differential method respectively identifies the position information of various vibration events with 1.7 dB and 0.53 dB SNR improvement. We further demonstrate the ability to locate positions along a fiber that are subjected to vibrations of frequencies higher than the theoretical maximum, but without determining these frequencies.
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