Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Mansour, A. E.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Cui, X.; Shi, D.; Alofi, A.; Losovyj, Ya. B.; Gurung, G.; Paudel, T. R.; Yost, A. J.; Dowben, P. A.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Amassian, Aram; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh(Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2018-07-09)[Article]
The electronic structure of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) single crystals has been investigated through a combination of resonant photoemission and theoretical modeling. There are Pb spectral contributions throughout the valence band. Importantly, the electronic structure at the top of the valence band is found to be dominated by the hybridized Pb-Br bands, not methylammonium bromide. The results line up with the partial density of states obtained from density functional theory and confirm that much of the valence band has some Pb spectral weight.
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected nanoscale spin textures exhibiting fascinating physical behaviors. Recent observations of room temperature skyrmions in sputtered multilayer films are an important step towards their use in ultra-low power devices. Such practical applications prefer skyrmions to be stable at zero magnetic fields and room temperature. Here, we report the creation of skyrmion lattices in Pt/Co/Ta multilayers by a scanning local field using magnetic force microscopy tips. We also show that those newly created skyrmion lattices are stable at both room temperature and zero fields. Lorentz transmission electron microscopy measurements reveal that the skyrmions in our films are of Néel-type. To gain a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the creation of a skyrmion lattice by the scanning of local fields, we perform micromagnetic simulations and find the experimental results to be in agreement with our simulation data. This study opens another avenue for the creation of skyrmion lattices in thin films.
Kang, Chun Hong; Shen, Chao; M. Saheed, M. Shuaib; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif(Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2016-08-23)[Article]
Transparent conductive electrodes (TCE) made of carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene composite for GaN-based light emitting diodes (LED) are presented. The TCE with 533-Ω/□ sheet resistance and 88% transmittance were obtained when chemical-vapor-deposition grown graphene was fused across CNT networks. With an additional 2-nm thin NiOx interlayer between the TCE and top p-GaN layer of the LED, the forward voltage was reduced to 5.12 V at 20-mA injection current. Four-fold improvement in terms of light output power was observed. The improvement can be ascribed to the enhanced lateral current spreading across the hybrid CNT-graphene TCE before injection into the p-GaN layer.
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