Recent Submissions

  • Role of Buffer Layer and Building Unit in the Monolayer CrI3 Growth: A First-Principles Perspective

    Han, Nannan; Yang, Dian; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhang, Xixiang; Shao, Jinjun; Cheng, Yingchun; Huang, Wei (The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-27) [Article]
    CrI3, a two-dimensional layered material, has recently attracted a lot of research interest due to its exotic magnetic property. However, the synthesis of a CrI3 monolayer (ML) by vapor-phase deposition has not been achieved by current experimental endeavors, which require a better understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism involved. In this study, we theoretically simulate the growth of the CrI3 ML on the Si(111) surface by using a first-principles calculation. Our key finding is that an iodine buffer layer on the Si surface is crucial to the formation of the CrI3 ML by stabilizing the precursor and also reacting with the precursor. Moreover, our simulation reveals that the CrI2 cluster as the growth building unit, which can be formed by controlling the chemical potential of the I source, is preferred for the formation of CrI3 ML. We think that our work will provide insightful guidance for the experimental synthesis of CrI3 ML in the future.
  • High-color-rendering-index phosphor-free InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes by carrier injection enhancement via V-pits

    Iida, Daisuke; Zhuang, Zhe; Kirilenko, Pavel; Velazquez-Rizo, Martin; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro (Applied Physics Letters, AIP Publishing, 2020-10-27) [Article]
    We herein report the growth of phosphor-free InGaN-based white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The active region consists of blue and red InGaN quantum wells (QWs). To improve the current injection and generate broadband emission, the V-pit structures in the LEDs were fabricated intentionally before growing the QWs. The monolithic white LEDs emit in the range of 410–770 nm and, by tuning the injection current, can cover correlated color temperature (CCT) values corresponding to warm white, natural white, and cool white. The color-rendering index (CRI) of the white LEDs reaches 88 at an injection current of 10 mA. At an injection current of 30 mA, the white LEDs exhibit the chromaticity coordinates of (0.320 and 0.334) in the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage 1931 chromaticity diagram, a CRI of 78, and a CCT of 6110 K.
  • Spatial hierarchical modeling of threshold exceedances using rate mixtures

    Yadav, Rishikesh; Huser, Raphaël; Opitz, Thomas (Environmetrics, Wiley, 2020-10-27) [Article]
    We develop new exible univariate models for light-tailed and heavy-tailed data, which extend a hierarchical representation of the generalized Pareto (GP) limit for threshold exceedances. These models can accommodate departure from asymptotic threshold stability in finite samples while keeping the asymptotic GP distribution as a special (or boundary) case and can capture the tails and the bulk jointly without losing much exibility. Spatial dependence is modeled through a latent process, while the data are assumed to be conditionally independent. Focusing on a gamma-gamma model construction, we design penalized complexity priors for crucial model parameters, shrinking our proposed spatial Bayesian hierarchical model toward a simpler reference whose marginal distributions are GP with moderately heavy tails. Our model can be fitted in fairly high dimensions using Markov chain Monte Carlo by exploiting the Metropolis-adjusted Langevin algorithm (MALA), which guarantees fast convergence of Markov chains with efficient block proposals for the latent variables. We also develop an adaptive scheme to calibrate the MALA tuning parameters. Moreover, our model avoids the expensive numerical evaluations of multifold integrals in censored likelihood expressions. We demonstrate our new methodology by simulation and application to a dataset of extreme rainfall events that occurred in Germany. Our fitted gamma-gamma model provides a satisfactory performance and can be successfully used to predict rainfall extremes at unobserved locations.
  • Clustered spatio-temporal varying coefficient regression model.

    Lee, Junho; Kamenetsky, Maria E; Gangnon, Ronald E; Zhu, Jun (Statistics in medicine, Wiley, 2020-10-26) [Article]
    In regression analysis for spatio-temporal data, identifying clusters of spatial units over time in a regression coefficient could provide insight into the unique relationship between a response and covariates in certain subdomains of space and time windows relative to the background in other parts of the spatial domain and the time period of interest. In this article, we propose a varying coefficient regression method for spatial data repeatedly sampled over time, with heterogeneity in regression coefficients across both space and over time. In particular, we extend a varying coefficient regression model for spatial-only data to spatio-temporal data with flexible temporal patterns. We consider the detection of a potential cylindrical cluster of regression coefficients based on testing whether the regression coefficient is the same or not over the entire spatial domain for each time point. For multiple clusters, we develop a sequential identification approach. We assess the power and identification of known clusters via a simulation study. Our proposed methodology is illustrated by the analysis of a cancer mortality dataset in the Southeast of the U.S.
  • Intrinsic efficiency limits in low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor organic solar cells

    Karuthedath, Safakath; Gorenflot, Julien; Firdaus, Yuliar; Chaturvedi, Neha; De Castro, Catherine S. P.; Harrison, George T.; Khan, Jafar Iqbal; Markina, Anastasia; Albalawi, Ahmed; Peña, Top Archie Dela; Liu, Wenlan; Liang, Ru-Ze; Sharma, Anirudh; Paleti, Sri Harish Kumar; Zhang, Weimin; Lin, Yuanbao; Alarousu, Erkki; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Beaujuge, Pierre; De Wolf, Stefaan; McCulloch, Iain; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Baran, Derya; Andrienko, Denis; Laquai, Frédéric (Nature Materials, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-26) [Article]
    In bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) both the electron affinity (EA) and ionization energy (IE) offsets at the donor–acceptor interface should equally control exciton dissociation. Here, we demonstrate that in low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor (NFA) BHJs ultrafast donor-to-acceptor energy transfer precedes hole transfer from the acceptor to the donor and thus renders the EA offset virtually unimportant. Moreover, sizeable bulk IE offsets of about 0.5 eV are needed for efficient charge transfer and high internal quantum efficiencies, since energy level bending at the donor–NFA interface caused by the acceptors’ quadrupole moments prevents efficient exciton-to-charge-transfer state conversion at low IE offsets. The same bending, however, is the origin of the barrier-less charge transfer state to free charge conversion. Our results provide a comprehensive picture of the photophysics of NFA-based blends, and show that sizeable bulk IE offsets are essential to design efficient BHJ OSCs based on low-bandgap NFAs.
  • Mechanically flexible viscosity sensor for real-time monitoring of tubular architectures for industrial applications

    Nour, Maha A.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Qaiser, Nadeem; Bunaiyan, Saleh A.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa (Engineering Reports, Wiley, 2020-10-26) [Article]
    Real-time monitoring of fluid viscosities in tubular systems is essential for industries transporting fluid media. The available real-time viscometers for tubular systems have major drawbacks, such as using invasive methods with large pressure drops due to flow disturbances, destructive installation processes with permanent tube damage, and limited operability with laminar flows. Therefore, developing a viscometer to address the above-mentioned concerns is required for industrial applications. In this study, a new application of a velocity-dependent viscometer using a novel design for real-time measurements with insignificant flow disruption is proposed. It involves a Poly (methyl-methacrylate) microchannel bridge with a microfluidic flowmeter attached to a mechanically flexible Polydimethylsiloxane platform connected to the inner surface of the pipe, which can adapt to different pipe diameters and curvatures. Moreover, the proposed viscometer uses the pipe flow driving force to flow fluids into the microchannel for measurement without requiring a pumping system or any sample withdrawals. The results of the simulation analysis match the experimental results of the sensor performance. The sensor can measure different viscosities in the range of 4-334 mPa s with a resolution higher than 2.7 mPa s. Finally, a stand-alone system is integrated with the sensor for wireless data transmission.
  • Addition of a carbon fiber brush improves anaerobic digestion compared to external voltage application

    Baek, Gahyun; Saikaly, Pascal; Logan, Bruce (Water Research, Elsevier BV, 2020-10-26) [Article]
    Two methods were examined to improve methane production efficiency in anaerobic digestion (AD) based on adding a large amount of surface area using a single electrically conductive carbon brush, or by adding electrodes as done in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) to form a hybrid AD-MEC. To examine the impact of surface area relative to electrodes, AD reactors were fitted with a single large brush without electrodes (FB), half a large brush with two electrodes with an applied voltage (0.8 V) and operated in closed circuit (HB-CC) or open circuit (HB-OC) mode, or only two electrodes with a closed circuit and no large brush (NB-CC) (equivalent to an MEC). The three configurations with a half or full brush all had improved performance as shown by 57-82% higher methane generation rate parameters in the Gompertz model compared to NB-CC. The retained biomass was much higher in the reactors with large brush, which likely contributed to the rapid consumption of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and therefore improved AD performance. A different microbial community structure was formed in the large-size brushes compared to the electrodes. Methanothrix was predominant in the biofilm of large-size carbon brush, while Geobacter (anode) and Methanobacterium (cathode) were highly abundant in the electrode biofilms. These results demonstrate that adding a high surface area carbon fiber brush will be a more effective method of improving AD performance than using MEC electrodes with an applied potential.
  • Derivation of two naturally isogenic iPSC lines (KAUSTi006-A and KAUSTi006-B) from a mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome patient (47-XXY/46-XY).

    Fiacco, Elisabetta; Alowaysi, Maryam; Astro, Veronica; Adamo, Antonio (Stem cell research, Elsevier BV, 2020-10-23) [Article]
    While Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) has a prevalence of 85-250 per 100,000 born males, patients are typically underdiagnosed due to a subtle phenotype emerging only late during puberty or adulthood. Rare cases of KS carry a mosaic phenotype 47-XXY/46-XY associated to mild phenotypic traits mostly compatible with a normal life including preserved fertility. From a genetic modeling perspective, the derivation of naturally isogenic iPSCs from mosaic patients allows the comparison of disease and healthy cells carrying a virtually identical genomic background.
  • Spreading of Normal Liquid Helium Drops

    Mallin, David; Langley, Kenneth; Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Wallace, Matthew L.; Milgie, Michael; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Taborek, P. (Physical Review E, American Physical Society (APS), 2020-10-21) [Article]
    We have used video imaging and interferometric techniques to investigate the dynamics of spreading of drops of 4He on a solid surface for temperatures ranging from 5.2 K (near the critical point) to 2.2 K (near Tλ). After an initial transient, the drops become pancake-shaped with a radius that grows as R(t) ≈ t α, with α =0.149 ± 0.002. The drops eventually begin to shrink due to evaporation driven by gravitational and curvature effects, which limits their lifetime to about 1000 s. Although helium completely wets the substrate, and the spreading takes place over a pre-existing adsorbed film, a distinct contact line with a contact angle of order one degree is visible throughout this process.
  • Electropolymerization of robust conjugated microporous polymer membranes for rapid solvent transport and narrow molecular sieving

    Zhou, Zongyao; Li, Xiang; Guo, Dong; Shinde, Digambar; Lu, Dongwei; Chen, Long; Liu, Xiaowei; Cao, Li; Aboalsaud, Ammar M.; Hu, Yunxia; Lai, Zhiping (Nature Communications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-21) [Article]
    Abstract Pore size uniformity is one of the most critical parameters in determining membrane separation performance. Recently, a novel type of conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) has shown uniform pore size and high porosity. However, their brittle nature has prevented them from preparing robust membranes. Inspired by the skin-core architecture of spider silk that offers both high strength and high ductility, herein we report an electropolymerization process to prepare a CMP membrane from a rigid carbazole monomer, 2,2’,7,7’-tetra(carbazol-9-yl)-9,9’-spirobifluorene, inside a robust carbon nanotube scaffold. The obtained membranes showed superior mechanical strength and ductility, high surface area, and uniform pore size of approximately 1 nm. The superfast solvent transport and excellent molecular sieving well surpass the performance of most reported polymer membranes. Our method makes it possible to use rigid CMPs membranes in pressure-driven membrane processes, providing potential applications for this important category of polymer materials.
  • Numerical Investigation of the Free and Ducted Fuel Injections under Compression Ignition Conditions

    Liu, Xinlei; Mohan, Balaji; Im, Hong G. (Energy & Fuels, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-21) [Article]
    A ducted fuel injection (DFI) strategy has been proposed as an efficient approach to reduce the soot emission in direct-injection compression ignition engines. By injecting the fuel through a small tube within the combustion chamber, a leaner air−fuel mixture is generated compared to the conventional free spray approach, which significantly inhibits the soot formation and helps to reduce the dependence of the engine on after-treatment systems. However, the soot reduction mechanism is still not fully understood. Therefore, in this work, a three-dimensional computational investigation was performed to explain the experimental results. Four different reduced chemical mechanisms were used to simulate the reacting spray A (n-dodecane) data from both the Engine Combustion Network group and literature. An improved post-processing method was also proposed to investigate the detailed combustion feature. The results revealed that the ignition processes using different mechanisms were all dominated by the same reaction CH2O + OH = HCO + H2O. Of the four reduced mechanisms, Yao mech demonstrated the best-predicted performance. Compared to the free-spray case, the DFI case generated a longer ignition delay and lift-off length and lower soot concentration owing to the significant reduction of air entrainment and longer core jet velocity from the duct exit to the lift-off length location. In addition, the DFI case had a significantly longer low-temperature heat release region but a shorter hightemperature heat release region and a smaller core between these two regions, which helps to reduce the sooting tendency.
  • Characterizing envelopes of moving rotational cones and applications in CNC machining

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Bo, Pengbo; Bartoň, Michael; Pottmann, Helmut (Elsevier, 2020-10-20) [Article]
    Motivated by applications in CNC machining, we provide a characterization of surfaces which are enveloped by a one-parametric family of congruent rotational cones. As limit cases, we also address developable surfaces and ruled surfaces. The characterizations are higher order nonlinear PDEs generalizing the ones by Gauss and Monge for developable surfaces and ruled surfaces, respectively. The derivation includes results on local approximations of a surface by cones of revolution, which are expressed by contact order in the space of planes. These results are themselves of interest in geometric computing, for example in cutter selection and positioning for flank CNC machining.
  • Role of Oxidized Mo Species on the Active Surface of Ni–Mo Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution under Alkaline Conditions

    Bau, Jeremy; Kozlov, Sergey; Azofra Mesa, Luis; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Idriss, Hicham; Cavallo, Luigi; Takanabe, Kazuhiro (ACS Catalysis, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2020-10-20) [Article]
    A Ni–Mo composite functions as a promising non-noble metal electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline water. Despite its industrial relevance, the kinetic origin of the high catalytic activity remains under debate. The present report discusses a reaction mechanism of HER on Ni–Mo catalysts by combining experimental and theoretical studies. In contrast to a Ni catalyst, a Ni–Mo catalyst is insensitive to CO gas introduced during HER. In situ spectroscopic measurements including Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) show that Mo3+ prevails during HER catalysis. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations corroborate the thermodynamic stability and HER activity of Mo3+-containing centers on Ni(111) at HER potentials. Notably, Ni is demonstrated to play no direct role as a catalytic site but to effectively disperse and activate the oxidized catalytic Mo species. The results illustrate how to improve the electrocatalytic activity for alkaline HER.
  • Enrichment of salt-tolerant CO2-fixing communities in microbial electrosynthesis systems using porous ceramic hollow tube wrapped with carbon cloth as cathode and for CO2 supply.

    AlQahtani, Manal Faisal; Bajracharya, Suman; Katuri, Krishna; Ali, Muhammad; Xu, Jiajie; Alarawi, Mohammed S; Saikaly, Pascal (The Science of the total environment, Elsevier BV, 2020-10-20) [Article]
    Microbial inocula from marine origins are less explored for CO2 reduction in microbial electrosynthesis (MES) system, although effective CO2-fixing communities in marine environments are well-documented. We explored natural saline habitats, mainly salt marsh (SM) and mangrove (M) sediments, as potential inoculum sources for enriching salt-tolerant CO2 reducing community using two enrichment strategies: H2:CO2 (80:20) enrichment in serum vials and enrichment in cathode chamber of MES reactors operated at -1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Porous ceramic hollow tube wrapped with carbon cloth was used as cathode and for direct CO2 delivery to CO2 reducing communities growing on the cathode surface. Methanogenesis was dominant in both the M- and SM-seeded MES and the methanogenic Archaea Methanococcus was the most dominant genus. Methane production was slightly higher in the SM-seeded MES (4.9 ± 1.7 mmol) compared to the M-seeded MES (3.8 ± 1.1 mmol). In contrast, acetate production was almost two times higher in the M-seeded MES (3.1 ± 0.9 mmol) than SM-seeded MES (1.5 ± 1.3 mmol). The high relative abundance of the genus Acetobacterium in the M-seeded serum vials correlates with the high acetate production obtained. The different enrichment strategies affected the community composition, though the communities in MES reactors and serum vials were performing similar functions (methanogenesis and acetogenesis). Despite similar operating conditions, the microbial community composition of M-seeded serum vials and MES reactors differed from the SM-seeded serum vials and MES reactors, supporting the importance of inoculum source in the evolution of CO2-reducing microbial communities.
  • Electrification at water–hydrophobe interfaces

    Nauruzbayeva, Jamilya; Sun, Zhonghao; Gallo Junior, Adair; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Santamarina, Carlos; Mishra, Himanshu (Nature Communications, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-20) [Article]
    Abstract The mechanisms leading to the electrification of water when it comes in contact with hydrophobic surfaces remains a research frontier in chemical science. A clear understanding of these mechanisms could, for instance, aid the rational design of triboelectric generators and micro- and nano-fluidic devices. Here, we investigate the origins of the excess positive charges incurred on water droplets that are dispensed from capillaries made of polypropylene, perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane-coated glass, and polytetrafluoroethylene. Results demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of electrical charges vary depending on: the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the capillary; the presence/absence of a water reservoir inside the capillary; the chemical and physical properties of aqueous solutions such as pH, ionic strength, dielectric constant and dissolved CO2 content; and environmental conditions such as relative humidity. Based on these results, we deduce that common hydrophobic materials possess surface-bound negative charge. Thus, when these surfaces are submerged in water, hydrated cations form an electrical double layer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the primary role of hydrophobicity is to facilitate water-substrate separation without leaving a significant amount of liquid behind. These results advance the fundamental understanding of water-hydrophobe interfaces and should translate into superior materials and technologies for energy transduction, electrowetting, and separation processes, among others.
  • RepAHR: an improved approach for de novo repeat identification by assembly of the high-frequency reads.

    Liao, Xingyu; Gao, Xin; Zhang, Xiankai; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Wang, Jianxin (BMC bioinformatics, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-20) [Article]
    BACKGROUND:Repetitive sequences account for a large proportion of eukaryotes genomes. Identification of repetitive sequences plays a significant role in many applications, such as structural variation detection and genome assembly. Many existing de novo repeat identification pipelines or tools make use of assembly of the high-frequency k-mers to obtain repeats. However, a certain degree of sequence coverage is required for assemblers to get the desired assemblies. On the other hand, assemblers cut the reads into shorter k-mers for assembly, which may destroy the structure of the repetitive regions. For the above reasons, it is difficult to obtain complete and accurate repetitive regions in the genome by using existing tools. RESULTS:In this study, we present a new method called RepAHR for de novo repeat identification by assembly of the high-frequency reads. Firstly, RepAHR scans next-generation sequencing (NGS) reads to find the high-frequency k-mers. Secondly, RepAHR filters the high-frequency reads from whole NGS reads according to certain rules based on the high-frequency k-mer. Finally, the high-frequency reads are assembled to generate repeats by using SPAdes, which is considered as an outstanding genome assembler with NGS sequences. CONLUSIONS:We test RepAHR on five data sets, and the experimental results show that RepAHR outperforms RepARK and REPdenovo for detecting repeats in terms of N50, reference alignment ratio, coverage ratio of reference, mask ratio of Repbase and some other metrics.
  • How drain flies manage to almost never get washed away

    Speirs, Nathan Bevan; Mahadik, Gauri; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T (Scientific Reports, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-20) [Article]
    Abstract Drain flies, Pshycoda spp. (Order Diptera, Family Psychodidae), commonly reside in our homes, annoying us in our bathrooms, kitchens, and laundry rooms. They like to stay near drains where they lay their eggs and feed on microorganisms and liquid carbohydrates found in the slime that builds up over time. Though they generally behave very sedately, they react quite quickly when threatened with water. A squirt from the sink induces them to fly away, seemingly unaffected, and flushing the toilet with flies inside does not necessarily whisk them down. We find that drain flies’ remarkable ability to evade such potentially lethal threats does not stem primarily from an evolved behavioral response, but rather from a unique hair covering with a hierarchical roughness. This covering, that has never been previously explored, imparts superhydrophobicity against large droplets and pools and antiwetting properties against micron-sized droplets and condensation. We examine how this hair covering equips them to take advantage of the relevant fluid dynamics and flee water threats in domestic and natural environments including: millimetric-sized droplets, mist, waves, and pools of water. Our findings elucidate drain flies’ astounding ability to cope with a wide range of water threats and almost never get washed down the drain.
  • Extreme water levels along the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia: processes and frequency analysis

    Antony, Charls; Langodan, Sabique; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim (Natural Hazards, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-10-19) [Article]
    Knowledge about extreme water levels is essential for efficient planning and design of coastal infrastructure. This study uses a high-resolution (~ 60 m) coupled advanced circulation + simulating waves nearshore modeling system to estimate extreme water levels in the coastal waters of King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC), Saudi Arabia, located on the central eastern coast of the Red Sea. High spatial (5 km) and temporal (hourly) resolution meteorological fields are generated to drive the model, along with open ocean tides. The characteristics of extreme water levels in the region are subsequently described based on the validated model simulations. The central Red Sea is characterized by a low-tidal regime, and meteorological events contribute significantly to total water levels: meteorological surges cause water level increases of up to 75 cm inside the KAEC lagoon. An extreme value analysis based on annual maxima of hindcast water level data is conducted and the results suggest that the inferred 100-year water levels are about 80 cm inside the KAEC lagoon. It is also shown that projected sea level rise would reduce the average recurrence intervals of extreme water levels along the KAEC coastline.
  • On the flame structure and stabilization characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted n-heptane jet flames in heated coflow air

    Jung, Ki Sung; Kim, Seung Ook; Chung, Suk Ho; Yoo, Chun Sang (Combustion and Flame, Elsevier BV, 2020-10-19) [Article]
    The characteristics of the flame structure and stabilization of autoignited laminar lifted n-heptane jet flames in heated coflow air are investigated by performing 2-D numerical simulations with a 68-species skeletal chemical mechanism of n-heptane oxidation. The present simulations can reproduce a distinct transition of a lifted jet flame from a tribrachial edge flame mode to a moderate or intense low-oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion mode observed from a previous experimental study, featuring a significant variation in the liftoff height with the fuel jet velocity, U0. It is found that a lifted flame with the MILD combustion mode can exist further downstream of the stoichiometric mixture fraction isoline due to autoignition occurring upstream of the flamebase. The displacement speed and chemical explosive mode analyses reveal that the autoignition of lean mixtures plays a critical role in stabilizing lifted flames with the MILD combustion mode. It is further elucidated from additional numerical simulations that an autoignited laminar lifted n-heptane jet flames can be stabilized as one of the following forms depending on the inlet temperature, T0, and U0: a MILD combustion, a partially-premixed edge flame, a tribrachial edge flame, and a tetrabrachial edge flame. Based on the flame structures and stabilization mechanisms of the lifted flames, a flame regime diagram is constructed in the normalized U0 and Damköhler number space.

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