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dc.contributor.authorJessen, Christian
dc.contributor.authorRoder, Cornelia
dc.contributor.authorLizcano, Javier
dc.contributor.authorVoolstra, Christian R.
dc.contributor.authorWild, Christian
dc.date.accessioned2014-07-21T13:38:12Z
dc.date.available2014-07-21T13:38:12Z
dc.date.issued2013-6-19
dc.identifier.citationJessen C, Roder C, Villa Lizcano JF, Voolstra CR, Wild C (2013) In-Situ Effects of Simulated Overfishing and Eutrophication on Benthic Coral Reef Algae Growth, Succession, and Composition in the Central Red Sea. PLoS ONE 8: e66992. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066992.
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.pmid23840570
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0066992
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/323538
dc.description.abstractOverfishing and land-derived eutrophication are major local threats to coral reefs and may affect benthic communities, moving them from coral dominated reefs to algal dominated ones. The Central Red Sea is a highly under-investigated area, where healthy coral reefs are contending against intense coastal development. This in-situ study investigated both the independent and combined effects of manipulated inorganic nutrient enrichment (simulation of eutrophication) and herbivore exclosure (simulation of overfishing) on benthic algae development. Light-exposed and shaded terracotta tiles were positioned at an offshore patch reef close to Thuwal, Saudi Arabia and sampled over a period of 4 months. Findings revealed that nutrient enrichment alone affected neither algal dry mass nor algae-derived C or N production. In contrast, herbivore exclusion significantly increased algal dry mass up to 300-fold, and in conjunction with nutrient enrichment, this total increased to 500-fold. Though the increase in dry mass led to a 7 and 8-fold increase in organic C and N content, respectively, the algal C/N ratio (18±1) was significantly lowered in the combined treatment relative to controls (26±2). Furthermore, exclusion of herbivores significantly increased the relative abundance of filamentous algae on the light-exposed tiles and reduced crustose coralline algae and non-coralline red crusts on the shaded tiles. The combination of the herbivore exclusion and nutrient enrichment treatments pronounced these effects. The results of our study suggest that herbivore reduction, particularly when coupled with nutrient enrichment, favors non-calcifying, filamentous algae growth with high biomass production, which thoroughly outcompetes the encrusting (calcifying) algae that dominates in undisturbed conditions. These results suggest that the healthy reefs of the Central Red Sea may experience rapid shifts in benthic community composition with ensuing effects for biogeochemical cycles if anthropogenic impacts, particularly overfishing, are not controlled.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was jointly funded by the Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT) and the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066992
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686771/
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PloS one
dc.titleIn-Situ Effects of Simulated Overfishing and Eutrophication on Benthic Coral Reef Algae Growth, Succession, and Composition in the Central Red Sea.
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
dc.identifier.journalPLoS ONE
dc.identifier.pmcidPMC3686771
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDF
dc.contributor.institutionCoral Reef Ecology Group (CORE), Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT), Bremen, Germany.
dc.contributor.affiliationKing Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)
kaust.personRoder, Cornelia
kaust.personVoolstra, Christian R.
kaust.personLizcano, Javier
refterms.dateFOA2018-06-13T14:33:09Z


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Figure S1 - Study site. Right panel shows position of the study area in the Red Sea. The circle on the left panel indicates the study site at the Northern tip of Al Fahal-reef, located about 13 km off the Saudi-Arabian coast.
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Figure S2 - Temperature development at Al Fahal reef. Daily average temperatures (± max/min) of the 16 experimental frames at 5 m water depths at Al Fahal reef over the study period from June to September 2011. Sampling times are indicated by vertical lines.
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Figure S3 - δ15N isotopic signatures of homogenized cover of light-exposed tiles. δ15N values (mean±SE) are shown for each treatment over 5 sampling times. Missing values of wk 1 and wk 4 resulted from insufficient algal material for analysis. P-values are calculated from 3-factorial ANOVA and originate from analysis across the whole study period (see Table S3 for full test results).
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Table S1 - List of counted herbivorous fish. Listed are families, species names, abundance (normalized to ind. m−2), and their biomass (normalized to g m−2).
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Table S2 - List of counted sea urchins. Listed are species names, abundance (ind. m−2), and their biomass (g m−2).
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Table S3 - Results of the 3-factorial ANOVA of d15N isotopic signatures of cover from light exposed tiles. Significant results are indicated by asterisks. Abbreviations: C = Cage, F = Fertilizer, T = Time.

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