Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.
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Yum, Lauren K
Desalvo, Michael K
Coffroth, Mary Alice
Voolstra, Christian R.
KAUST DepartmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)
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AbstractDinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.
CitationBayer T, Aranda M, Sunagawa S, Yum LK, DeSalvo MK, et al. (2012) Symbiodinium Transcriptomes: Genome Insights into the Dinoflagellate Symbionts of Reef-Building Corals. PLoS ONE 7: e35269. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0035269.
SponsorsThis study was supported through NSF (National Science Foundation) awards IOS 0644438 and IOS 0926906 (MM), OCE 0424994 (MAC), a KAUST AEA (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology) 3 Joint Collaborative Research award (CRV), and through a Collaborative Travel Fund to TB made by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. The work conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed Central IDPMC3329448
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