Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab

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  • Article

    Bacterioplankton dark CO2 fixation in oligotrophic waters

    (Copernicus GmbH, 2023-08-31) Alothman, Afrah; López-Sandoval, Daffne C.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Agusti, Susana; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab (CMR), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955, Saudi Arabia; Marine Science Program; Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE) Division; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

    Dark CO2 fixation by bacteria is believed to be particularly important in oligotrophic ecosystems. However, only a few studies have characterized the role of bacterial dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation in global carbon dynamics. Therefore, this study quantified the primary production (PP), total bacteria dark CO2 fixation (TBDIC fixation), and heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) in the warm and oligotrophic Red Sea using stable-isotope labeling and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (13C–CRDS). Additionally, we assessed the contribution of bacterial DIC fixation (TBDIC %) relative to the total DIC fixation (totalDIC fixation). Our study demonstrated that TBDIC fixation increased the totalDIC fixation from 2.03 to 60.45 µg C L−1 d−1 within the photic zone, contributing 13.18 % to 71.68 % with an average value of 33.95 ± 0.02 % of the photic layer totalDIC fixation. The highest TBDIC fixation values were measured at the surface and deep (400 m) water with an average value of 5.23 ± 0.45 and 4.95 ± 1.33 µg C L−1 d−1, respectively. These findings suggest that the non-photosynthetic processes such as anaplerotic DIC reactions and chemoautotrophic CO2 fixation extended to the entire oxygenated water column. On the other hand, the percent of TBDIC contribution to totalDIC fixation increased as primary production decreased (R2=0.45, p<0.0001), suggesting the relevance of increased dark DIC fixation when photosynthetic production was low or absent, as observed in other systems. Therefore, when estimating the total carbon dioxide production in the ocean, dark DIC fixation must also be accounted for as a crucial component of the carbon dioxide flux in addition to photosynthesis.

  • Conference Paper

    Effects of Intake Depth on Raw Seawater Quality in the Red Sea

    (Springer International Publishing, 2015) Dehwah, Abdullah H. A.; Li, Sheng; Almashharawi, Samir; Mallon, Francis; Batang, Zenon B.; Missimer, Thomas M.; Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE) Division; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab; Field & Lab Research Support; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); U.A. Whitaker College of Engineering, Florida Gulf Coast University, FL, United States

    It has been suggested that using a deep open-ocean intake would improve feed water quality and would reduce the cost of SWRO water treatment by lessening membrane biofouling potential. The feasibility of developing deep intake systems for large-capacity SWRO plants located on the Red Sea was assessed. A bathymetric survey showed that the continental shelf along the Red Sea nearshore has a nearly vertical drop into deep water beginning at depths between 20 and 40 m. The vertical nature of the bathymetric profile and the issue of active seismicity make the development of a SWRO intake at a depth of greater than 100 m below surface a very risky venture along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Detailed assessment of temperature and salinity with depth show a decrease of 5 °C and an increase of 1100 mg/L respectively over 90 m. Concentrations of algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, particulate and colloidal TEP, and the biopolymer fraction of natural organic carbon all showed declines in concentration. However, the general water quality improvements in reduced concentrations of organic matter were insufficient to reduce the intensity of pretreatment for an SWRO system. Overall, the Red Sea does not appear to be a good location for the use of deep SWRO intakes because of the structural risk of installing and maintaining an intake at near or below 100 m of water depth.

  • Bioproject

    SH4_Meta_454 Metagenome

    (NCBI, 2014-01-18) Gao, Zhao-Ming; Wang, Yong; Tian, Ren-Mao; Wong, Yue Him; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, Pei-Yuan; KAUST Global Collaborative Research Program, Division of Life Science, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Kowloon, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China; Competitive Research Funds; Office of the VP; OCRF- Special Academic Partnership; Academic Affairs; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab; Applied Mathematics and Computational Science Program; Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC); Computer, Electrical and Mathematical Sciences and Engineering (CEMSE) Division; Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Xiamen, People’s Republic of China; Sanya Institute of Deep Sea Science and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hainan, People’s Republic of China

    To extract the draft genome of a dominated cyanobacterial symbiont candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum in the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens, and illustrate its evolutionary and functional features as well as adaptive mechanism to the sponge host.

  • Article

    Larval fish dispersal in a coral-reef seascape

    (Springer Nature, 2017-05-08) Almany, Glenn R.; Planes, Serge; Thorrold, Simon R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bode, Michael; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Bonin, Mary C.; Frisch, Ashley J.; Harrison, Hugo B.; Messmer, Vanessa; Nanninga, Gerrit B.; Priest, Mark; Srinivasan, Maya; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Williamson, David H.; Jones, Geoffrey P.; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab; Marine Science Program; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC); Laboratoire d’Excellence CORAIL EPHE, PSL Research University, UPVD, CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, BP 1013, 98729 Papetoai, Moorea, French Polynesia.; Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA.; ARC Centre of Excellence for Environmental Decisions, School of BioSciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia.; Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Chile.; ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia.; Reef HQ, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Queensland 4810, Australia.; Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.; Marine Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia.

    Larval dispersal is a critical yet enigmatic process in the persistence and productivity of marine metapopulations. Empirical data on larval dispersal remain scarce, hindering the use of spatial management tools in efforts to sustain ocean biodiversity and fisheries. Here we document dispersal among subpopulations of clownfish (Amphiprion percula) and butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) from eight sites across a large seascape (10,000 km2) in Papua New Guinea across 2 years. Dispersal of clownfish was consistent between years, with mean observed dispersal distances of 15 km and 10 km in 2009 and 2011, respectively. A Laplacian statistical distribution (the dispersal kernel) predicted a mean dispersal distance of 13–19 km, with 90% of settlement occurring within 31–43 km. Mean dispersal distances were considerably greater (43–64 km) for butterflyfish, with kernels declining only gradually from spawning locations. We demonstrate that dispersal can be measured on spatial scales sufficient to inform the design of and test the performance of marine reserve networks.

  • Article

    Macrobenthic Community Structure in the Northwestern Arabian Gulf, Twelve Years after the 1991 Oil Spill

    (Frontiers Media SA, 2017-08-03) Joydas, Thadickal V.; Qurban, Mohammad A.; Borja, Angel; Krishnakumar, Periyadan K.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Beacon Development Company; Coastal and Marine Resources Core Lab; Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; Geosciences Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia; AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division, Pasaia, Spain

    The biota in the Arabian Gulf faces stress both from natural (i.e., hyper salinity and high sea surface temperature), and human (i.e., from oil-related activities) sources. The western Arabian Gulf was also impacted by world's largest oil spill (1991 Oil Spill). However, benthic research in this region is scarce and most of the studies have been conducted only in small areas. Here, we present data on macrobenthos collected during 2002–2003 from the open waters and inner bays in the northwestern Arabian Gulf aimed to assess the ecological status and also to evaluate the long-term impact, if any, of the 1991 Oil Spill. A total of 392 macrobenthic taxa with an average (±SE) species richness (S) of 71 ± 2, Shannon-Wiener species diversity (H′) of 4.9 ± 0.1, and density of 3,181 ± 359 ind. m−2 was recorded from the open water stations. The open waters have “slightly disturbed” (according to AZTI's Marine Biotic Index, AMBI) conditions, with “good-high” (according to multivariate-AMBI, M-AMBI) ecological status indicating the absence of long-term impacts of the oil spill. Overall, 162 taxa were recorded from inner bays with average (±SE) values of S 41 ± 9, H′ 3.48 ± 0.39, and density 4,203 ± 1,042 ind. m−2. The lower TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) stations (LTS, TPH concentrations <70 mg kg−2) show relatively higher S, H' and density compared to the higher TPH stations (HTS, TPH concentrations ≥100 mg kg−2). In the inner bays, AMBI values indicate slightly disturbed conditions at all stations except one, which is moderately disturbed. M-AMBI values indicate good status at LTS, while, high, good, moderate, and poor status at HTS. The “moderately disturbed” conditions with “moderate-poor” ecological status in some locations of the inner bays specify a severe long-term impact of the oil spill.