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  • GMR biosensing with magnetic nanowires as labels for the detection of osteosarcoma cells

    Su, Diqing; Um, Joseph; Moreno, Julian; Nemati, Zohreh; Srinivasan, Karthik; Chen, Junyang; Kouhpanji, M. Reza Zamani; Shore, Daniel; Wu, Kai; Kosel, Jürgen; Modiano, Jaime F.; Franklin, Rhonda; Wang, Jian-Ping; Stadler, Bethanie (SENSORS AND ACTUATORS A-PHYSICAL, Elsevier BV, 2023-12-31) [Article]
    Magnetic nanowires (MNWs) were explored as potential magnetic tags for cell detection with giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensors based on a handheld system. Due to size, shape anisotropy and higher moment materials, the signal detected from a single MNW was 2500 times larger than that from a single magnetic iron oxide nanobead, which is important for ultra-low concentration cell detection. A model was used to determine how the MNW orientation with respect to the GMR sensor impacts detection performance, and the results aligned well with the experimental results. As a proof of concept OSCA-8 cells tagged with Ni MNWs were also detected using the same handheld system. The limit of detection (LOD) in aqueous solution appeared to be 133 cells, and single-cell detection can be realized if the cell is in direct contact with the sensor surface. Since MNWs are already employed in magnetic separation of cells, directly using MNWs as tags in cell detection eliminates the need of additional functionalization with other labels. This largely simplifies the detection process and reduces the risk of contamination during sample preparation.
  • Towards laser-induced fluorescence of nitric oxide in detonation

    Chatelain, Karl P.; Chavez, S. B. Rojas; Vargas, J.; Lacoste, Deanna (Accepted by Shock waves, 2023-05-28) [Article]
    This study aims to validate the new developments in our in-house spectroscopic code (KAT-LIF) to perform NO-LIF simulations for detonation conditions, as well as evaluating the capabilities of the NO-LIF diagnostic for characterizing H2-air detonations. This objective was achieved in several steps. First, our in-house spectroscopic tool, KAT-LIF, was updated to perform NO-LIF simulations by notably developing a database of NO(A-X) transitions, currently unavailable in conventional spectroscopic databases, as well as collecting and implementing species-specific line broadening, line shifting, and quenching parameters for NO-LIF. Second, the validation of KAT-LIF was performed by comparing the simulation results with pre-existing simulation tools (LIFSim and LIFBASE) and experimental NO-LIF measurements in a laminar CH4-air flame and H2-air detonation. The validation results present satisfactory agreement of KAT-LIF and other simulation tools (LIFBASE, LIFSim) with experimental results for several conditions. For example, less than 20% discrepancy between the simulated and experimental NO-LIF profiles is observed for stoichiometric H2-air detonation, initially at 20 kPa and 293 K. Third, qualitative and quantitative capabilities of the NO-LIF technique for detonation characterization are discussed, which include: shock detection, induction zone length measurements, and quantitative number density measurements.
  • Corona Phase Molecular Recognition of the Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Family of Cytokines Using nIR Fluorescent Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Jin, Xiaojia; Lee, Michael A.; Gong, Xun; Koman, Volodymyr B.; Lundberg, Daniel J.; Wang, Song; Bakh, Naveed A.; Park, Minkyung; Dong, Juyao Ivy; Kozawa, Daichi; Cho, Soo-Yeon; Strano, Michael S (ACS Applied Nano Materials, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2023-05-26) [Article]
    The Interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines regulates inflammation and plays important roles in numerous biochemical pathways. Typically, cytokine levels are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or western blot. However, these techniques usually require substantial processing time, cost, machinery, and specialist training. Understanding the fundamental molecular recognition mechanism of cytokines with synthetic substrates is key to developing new biomedical technologies such as assays, sensors, and therapeutics that overcome the above limitations. Herein, we use the corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe) approach to engineer new carbon nanotube constructs and study their binding to the inflammatory cytokines: IL-6, interleukin-11 (IL-11), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Library screening identified two polymer-based CoPhMoRe constructs consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes complexed with p(AA68-rand-BA16-rand-CD16) polymer (MK2) or p(SS80-rand-BS20) polymer (P14) corona phases. The resulting dissociation constants (KD) were 8.38 ng/mL and 16.7 μg/mL, respectively, compared to that of the natural IL-6 receptor at ∼0.32 ng/mL. In addition, the MK2 constructs showed a nonmonotonic response function upon binding with IL-6. Comparative binding experiments suggest that both constructs appear to recognize the axially aligned α-helical structures present in the Interleukin-6 family. The findings from this study elucidate how nanoparticle interfaces, such as those produced by CoPhMoRe, can be designed to lock onto specific protein features. We find that the α-helical structure of the IL-6 family of cytokines can enable facile molecular recognition, opening the door to new types of label-free, low-cost sensing technologies.
  • Rapid monitoring of cleaning efficiency of fouled hollow fiber membrane module via non-invasive NMR diffraction technique

    Yan, Bin; Vogt, Sarah J.; Blankert, Bastiaan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Johns, Michael L.; Fridjonsson, Einar O. (Chemical Engineering Science, Elsevier BV, 2023-05-26) [Article]
    Early fouling warning is important for the economical operation of membrane separation systems. In parallel multi-channel flow systems, flow re-distribution between channels due to fouling is often associated with maloperation. In the current research we use low magnetic field NMR to monitor multi-fiber hollow fiber membrane modules undergoing a fouling-cleaning cycle and show that rapid detection of fouling is possible by detecting the loss of signal coherence associated with flow re-distribution within the 401 hollow fiber membrane module. This effect is demonstrated to be both reproducible, and reversible via membrane cleaning. The results demonstrate a strong correlation between the coherence signal magnitude and the number of fibers fouled. This may be used in practice for high sensitivity early warning, and to monitor the efficiency of cleaning. This approach may also be particularly useful in the case of detecting residual fouling after cleaning, evidenced in this research by significant flow re-distribution between the before fouling and after cleaning signal coherence.
  • Inkjet-printed h-BN memristors for hardware security

    Zhu, Kaichen; Vescio, Giovanni; González-Torres, Sergio; López-Vidrier, Julià; Frieiro, Juan Luis; Pazos, Sebastian Matias; Jing, Xu; Gao, Xu; Wang, Sui-Dong; Ascorbe-Muruzábal, Joaquín; Ruiz-Fuentes, Juan A; Cirera, Albert; Garrido, Blas; Lanza, Mario (Nanoscale, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2023-05-26) [Article]
    Inkjet printing electronics is a growing market that reached 7.8 billion USD in 2020 and that is expected to grow to ∼23 billion USD by 2026, driven by applications like displays, photovoltaics, lighting, and radiofrequency identification. Incorporating two-dimensional (2D) materials into this technology could further enhance the properties of the existing devices and/or circuits, as well as enable the development of new concept applications. Along these lines, here we report an easy and cheap process to synthesize inks made of multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN)—an insulating 2D layered material—by the liquid-phase exfoliation method and use them to fabricate memristors. The devices exhibit multiple stochastic phenomena that are very attractive for use as entropy sources in electronic circuits for data encryption (physical unclonable functions [PUFs], true random number generators [TRNGs]), such as: (i) a very disperse initial resistance and dielectric breakdown voltage, (ii) volatile unipolar and non-volatile bipolar resistive switching (RS) with a high cycle-to-cycle variability of the state resistances, and (iii) random telegraph noise (RTN) current fluctuations. The clue for the observation of these stochastic phenomena resides on the unpredictable nature of the device structure derived from the inkjet printing process (i.e., thickness fluctuations, random flake orientations), which allows fabricating electronic devices with different electronic properties. The easy-to-make and cheap memristors here developed are ideal to encrypt the information produced by multiple types of objects and/or products, and the versatility of the inkjet printing method, which allows effortless deposition on any substrate, makes our devices especially attractive for flexible and wearable devices within the internet-of-things.

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