Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/627648
Title:
Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration
Authors:
Kerdi, Sarah; Qamar, Adnan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S. ( 0000-0003-2668-2057 ) ; Ghaffour, Noreddine ( 0000-0003-2095-4736 )
Abstract:
The improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1 and 6.6 L.m-2.h-1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those observed with other perforated spacers, resulting in the cleanest membrane surface.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division; Environmental Science and Engineering Program
Citation:
Kerdi S, Qamar A, Vrouwenvelder JS, Ghaffour N (2018) Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration. Water Research. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.049.
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Water Research
Issue Date:
24-Apr-2018
DOI:
10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.049
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0043-1354
Sponsors:
The research reported in this paper was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. The authors acknowledge help, assistance and support from the Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC) staff and KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory. The authors would also like to thank Xavier Pita, scientific illustrator at KAUST, for producing the graphical abstract.
Additional Links:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135418303439
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorKerdi, Sarahen
dc.contributor.authorQamar, Adnanen
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en
dc.contributor.authorGhaffour, Noreddineen
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-25T07:07:36Z-
dc.date.available2018-04-25T07:07:36Z-
dc.date.issued2018-04-24en
dc.identifier.citationKerdi S, Qamar A, Vrouwenvelder JS, Ghaffour N (2018) Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration. Water Research. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.049.en
dc.identifier.issn0043-1354en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.049en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/627648-
dc.description.abstractThe improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1 and 6.6 L.m-2.h-1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those observed with other perforated spacers, resulting in the cleanest membrane surface.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research reported in this paper was supported by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia. The authors acknowledge help, assistance and support from the Water Desalination and Reuse Center (WDRC) staff and KAUST Supercomputing Laboratory. The authors would also like to thank Xavier Pita, scientific illustrator at KAUST, for producing the graphical abstract.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135418303439en
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Water Research. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Water Research, 24 April 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.04.049. © 2018. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
dc.subjectNovel design spacersen
dc.subjectCFDen
dc.subjectFiltrationen
dc.subjectPerforated spacersen
dc.subjectFoulingen
dc.subjectOptical Coherence Tomography (OCT)en
dc.titleFouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtrationen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Programen
dc.identifier.journalWater Researchen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
kaust.authorKerdi, Sarahen
kaust.authorQamar, Adnanen
kaust.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en
kaust.authorGhaffour, Noreddineen
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