Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/627429
Title:
Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors
Authors:
Alqahtani, Obaid; Babics, Maxime; Gorenflot, Julien; Savikhin, Victoria; Ferron, Thomas; Balawi, Ahmed H.; Paulke, Andreas; Kan, Zhipeng; Pope, Michael; Clulow, Andrew J.; Wolf, Jannic Sebastian; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Neher, Dieter; Toney, Michael F.; Laquai, Frederic ( 0000-0002-5887-6158 ) ; Beaujuge, Pierre; Collins, Brian A. ( 0000-0003-2047-8418 )
Abstract:
The interplay between nanomorphology and efficiency of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been the subject of intense research, but the generality of these concepts for small-molecule (SM) BHJs remains unclear. Here, the relation between performance; charge generation, recombination, and extraction dynamics; and nanomorphology achievable with two SM donors benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-pyrido[3,4-b]-pyrazine BDT(PPTh), namely SM1 and SM2, differing by their side-chains, are examined as a function of solution additive composition. The results show that the additive 1,8-diiodooctane acts as a plasticizer in the blends, increases domain size, and promotes ordering/crystallinity. Surprisingly, the system with high domain purity (SM1) exhibits both poor exciton harvesting and severe charge trapping, alleviated only slightly with increased crystallinity. In contrast, the system consisting of mixed domains and lower crystallinity (SM2) shows both excellent exciton harvesting and low charge recombination losses. Importantly, the onset of large, pure crystallites in the latter (SM2) system reduces efficiency, pointing to possible differences in the ideal morphologies for SM-based BHJ solar cells compared with polymer-fullerene devices. In polymer-based systems, tie chains between pure polymer crystals establish a continuous charge transport network, whereas SM-based active layers may in some cases require mixed domains that enable both aggregation and charge percolation to the electrodes.
KAUST Department:
Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division; Materials Science and Engineering Program; KAUST Solar Center (KSC); Chemical Science Program
Citation:
Alqahtani O, Babics M, Gorenflot J, Savikhin V, Ferron T, et al. (2018) Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors. Advanced Energy Materials: 1702941. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702941.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Journal:
Advanced Energy Materials
KAUST Grant Number:
CRG_R2_13_BEAU_KAUST_1
Issue Date:
25-Mar-2018
DOI:
10.1002/aenm.201702941
Type:
Article
ISSN:
1614-6832
Sponsors:
O.A. was supported by Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission in the United States. T.F. was supported by the Washington State University Seed Grant Program. A.P. and D.N. acknowledge financial support from the German Ministry of Science and Education (project UNVEIL). V.S. acknowledges financial support from the NDSEG fellowship. This research used resources described above of the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. P.M.B. acknowledges support by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. CRG_R2_13_BEAU_KAUST_1 and under KAUST Baseline Research Funding. The authors also wish to acknowledge the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering (formerly the Bragg Institute at the time of the measurements) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) for providing the neutron research facilities for the NR experiments. The NR measurements were supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Program (DP120101372). The authors would like to thank Dr. Andrew Nelson, Dr. Ravi Chandra Raju Nagiri, and Mr. Jake McEwan for their assistance in performing the NR measurements.
Additional Links:
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aenm.201702941
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Physical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Division; Chemical Science Program; Materials Science and Engineering Program; KAUST Solar Center (KSC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorAlqahtani, Obaiden
dc.contributor.authorBabics, Maximeen
dc.contributor.authorGorenflot, Julienen
dc.contributor.authorSavikhin, Victoriaen
dc.contributor.authorFerron, Thomasen
dc.contributor.authorBalawi, Ahmed H.en
dc.contributor.authorPaulke, Andreasen
dc.contributor.authorKan, Zhipengen
dc.contributor.authorPope, Michaelen
dc.contributor.authorClulow, Andrew J.en
dc.contributor.authorWolf, Jannic Sebastianen
dc.contributor.authorBurn, Paul L.en
dc.contributor.authorGentle, Ian R.en
dc.contributor.authorNeher, Dieteren
dc.contributor.authorToney, Michael F.en
dc.contributor.authorLaquai, Fredericen
dc.contributor.authorBeaujuge, Pierreen
dc.contributor.authorCollins, Brian A.en
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-11T06:55:43Z-
dc.date.available2018-04-11T06:55:43Z-
dc.date.issued2018-03-25en
dc.identifier.citationAlqahtani O, Babics M, Gorenflot J, Savikhin V, Ferron T, et al. (2018) Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors. Advanced Energy Materials: 1702941. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702941.en
dc.identifier.issn1614-6832en
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/aenm.201702941en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/627429-
dc.description.abstractThe interplay between nanomorphology and efficiency of polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells has been the subject of intense research, but the generality of these concepts for small-molecule (SM) BHJs remains unclear. Here, the relation between performance; charge generation, recombination, and extraction dynamics; and nanomorphology achievable with two SM donors benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene-pyrido[3,4-b]-pyrazine BDT(PPTh), namely SM1 and SM2, differing by their side-chains, are examined as a function of solution additive composition. The results show that the additive 1,8-diiodooctane acts as a plasticizer in the blends, increases domain size, and promotes ordering/crystallinity. Surprisingly, the system with high domain purity (SM1) exhibits both poor exciton harvesting and severe charge trapping, alleviated only slightly with increased crystallinity. In contrast, the system consisting of mixed domains and lower crystallinity (SM2) shows both excellent exciton harvesting and low charge recombination losses. Importantly, the onset of large, pure crystallites in the latter (SM2) system reduces efficiency, pointing to possible differences in the ideal morphologies for SM-based BHJ solar cells compared with polymer-fullerene devices. In polymer-based systems, tie chains between pure polymer crystals establish a continuous charge transport network, whereas SM-based active layers may in some cases require mixed domains that enable both aggregation and charge percolation to the electrodes.en
dc.description.sponsorshipO.A. was supported by Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia and the Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission in the United States. T.F. was supported by the Washington State University Seed Grant Program. A.P. and D.N. acknowledge financial support from the German Ministry of Science and Education (project UNVEIL). V.S. acknowledges financial support from the NDSEG fellowship. This research used resources described above of the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 and Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. P.M.B. acknowledges support by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) Office of Sponsored Research (OSR) under Award No. CRG_R2_13_BEAU_KAUST_1 and under KAUST Baseline Research Funding. The authors also wish to acknowledge the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering (formerly the Bragg Institute at the time of the measurements) and the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) for providing the neutron research facilities for the NR experiments. The NR measurements were supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Program (DP120101372). The authors would like to thank Dr. Andrew Nelson, Dr. Ravi Chandra Raju Nagiri, and Mr. Jake McEwan for their assistance in performing the NR measurements.en
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen
dc.relation.urlhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aenm.201702941en
dc.rightsThis is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Mixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donors, which has been published in final form at http://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702941. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance With Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving.en
dc.subjectCharge transporten
dc.subjectDomain purityen
dc.subjectMicroscopyen
dc.subjectMixed domainsen
dc.subjectOrganic solar cellsen
dc.subjectPhotovoltaic devicesen
dc.subjectResonant X-ray scatteringen
dc.subjectSmall moleculesen
dc.subjectTransient spectroscopyen
dc.titleMixed Domains Enhance Charge Generation and Extraction in Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells with Small-Molecule Donorsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentPhysical Sciences and Engineering (PSE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentMaterials Science and Engineering Programen
dc.contributor.departmentKAUST Solar Center (KSC)en
dc.contributor.departmentChemical Science Programen
dc.identifier.journalAdvanced Energy Materialsen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physics and Astronomy; Washington State University; Pullman WA 99164 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionStanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Menlo Park CA 94025 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionElectrical Engineering Department; Stanford University; Stanford CA 94305 USAen
dc.contributor.institutionInstitut fur Physik und Astronomie; Physik weicher Materie; University of Potsdam; Potsdam-Golm 14476 Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Organic Photonics & Electronics; The University of Queensland; Queensland 4072 Australiaen
kaust.authorBabics, Maximeen
kaust.authorGorenflot, Julienen
kaust.authorBalawi, Ahmed H.en
kaust.authorKan, Zhipengen
kaust.authorWolf, Jannic Sebastianen
kaust.authorLaquai, Fredericen
kaust.authorBeaujuge, Pierreen
kaust.grant.numberCRG_R2_13_BEAU_KAUST_1en
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