Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/626782
Title:
Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination
Authors:
Peters, Marjolein C. F. M.; Keuten, Maarten G. A.; Knezev, Aleksandra; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S. ( 0000-0003-2668-2057 ) ; Rietveld, Luuk C.; de Kreuk, Merle K.
Abstract:
Bathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl2 L−1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative. The dominant bacterial families with a relative abundance of ≥10% of the total (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) communities were Flavobacteriaceae (24–21%), Xanthomonadaceae (23–24%), Moraxellaceae (12–11%) and Pseudomonadaceae (10–22%). The relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae increased after chlorination and increased even more with longer contact times at 1 mg Cl2L−1. Therefore, Pseudomonadaceae were suggested to be relatively more chlorine resistant than the other identified bacteria. To determine which bacteria could survive chlorination causing a potential health risk, the relative abundance of the intact cell community was characterized before and after chlorination. The dominant bacterial families in the intact community (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) were Xanthomonadaceae (21–17%) and Moraxellaceae (48–57%). Moraxellaceae were therefore more chlorine resistant than the other identified intact bacteria present.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Citation:
Peters MCFM, Keuten MGA, Knezev A, van Loosdrecht MCM, Vrouwenvelder JS, et al. (2017) Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination. Journal of Water and Health: wh2017189. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2017.189.
Publisher:
IWA Publishing
Journal:
Journal of Water and Health
Issue Date:
22-Dec-2017
DOI:
10.2166/wh.2017.189
Type:
Article
ISSN:
1477-8920; 1996-7829
Sponsors:
This study is part of the DIPool project in which the project partners are Delft University of Technology, Hellebrekers Technieken, Akzo Nobel Industrial Chemicals B.V., Van Remmen UV Techniek, Coram International B.V. and Sportfondsen Nederland B.V. In addition, the project was funded by communal subsidies from EFRO – Europees Fonds voor Regionale Ontwikkeling and GO – Gelderland & Overijssel, Gebundelde Innovatiekracht. The authors would like to thank all of the shower participants and Mr. Jansen and Mr. Boers for the characterization of the samples. Thanks to Ms. Jones and Ms. Friedman for reviewing the language and spelling.
Additional Links:
http://jwh.iwaponline.com/content/early/2017/12/21/wh.2017.189
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Marjolein C. F. M.en
dc.contributor.authorKeuten, Maarten G. A.en
dc.contributor.authorKnezev, Aleksandraen
dc.contributor.authorvan Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.en
dc.contributor.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en
dc.contributor.authorRietveld, Luuk C.en
dc.contributor.authorde Kreuk, Merle K.en
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-15T06:35:08Z-
dc.date.available2018-01-15T06:35:08Z-
dc.date.issued2017-12-22en
dc.identifier.citationPeters MCFM, Keuten MGA, Knezev A, van Loosdrecht MCM, Vrouwenvelder JS, et al. (2017) Characterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorination. Journal of Water and Health: wh2017189. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2017.189.en
dc.identifier.issn1477-8920en
dc.identifier.issn1996-7829en
dc.identifier.doi10.2166/wh.2017.189en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/626782-
dc.description.abstractBathers release bacteria in swimming pool water, but little is known about the fate of these bacteria and potential risks they might cause. Therefore, shower water was characterized and subjected to chlorination to identify the more chlorine-resistant bacteria that might survive in a chlorinated swimming pool and therefore could form a potential health risk. The total community before and after chlorination (1 mg Cl2 L−1 for 30 s) was characterized. More than 99% of the bacteria in the shower water were Gram-negative. The dominant bacterial families with a relative abundance of ≥10% of the total (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) communities were Flavobacteriaceae (24–21%), Xanthomonadaceae (23–24%), Moraxellaceae (12–11%) and Pseudomonadaceae (10–22%). The relative abundance of Pseudomonadaceae increased after chlorination and increased even more with longer contact times at 1 mg Cl2L−1. Therefore, Pseudomonadaceae were suggested to be relatively more chlorine resistant than the other identified bacteria. To determine which bacteria could survive chlorination causing a potential health risk, the relative abundance of the intact cell community was characterized before and after chlorination. The dominant bacterial families in the intact community (non-chlorinated and chlorinated) were Xanthomonadaceae (21–17%) and Moraxellaceae (48–57%). Moraxellaceae were therefore more chlorine resistant than the other identified intact bacteria present.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study is part of the DIPool project in which the project partners are Delft University of Technology, Hellebrekers Technieken, Akzo Nobel Industrial Chemicals B.V., Van Remmen UV Techniek, Coram International B.V. and Sportfondsen Nederland B.V. In addition, the project was funded by communal subsidies from EFRO – Europees Fonds voor Regionale Ontwikkeling and GO – Gelderland & Overijssel, Gebundelde Innovatiekracht. The authors would like to thank all of the shower participants and Mr. Jansen and Mr. Boers for the characterization of the samples. Thanks to Ms. Jones and Ms. Friedman for reviewing the language and spelling.en
dc.publisherIWA Publishingen
dc.relation.urlhttp://jwh.iwaponline.com/content/early/2017/12/21/wh.2017.189en
dc.subjectbacterial populationen
dc.subjectcharacterizationen
dc.subjectchlorine resistanceen
dc.subjectgrey wateren
dc.titleCharacterization of the bacterial community in shower water before and after chlorinationen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Programen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Water and Healthen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionHellebrekers Technieken, Marconiweg 28, 8071 RA Nunspeet, The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionHet Waterlaboratorium, J.W. Lucasweg 2, 2031 BE Haarlem, The Netherlandsen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Van der Maasweg 9, 2629 HZ Delft, The Netherlands and Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, The Netherlandsen
kaust.authorvan Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.en
kaust.authorVrouwenvelder, Johannes S.en
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