Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/625738
Title:
Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters
Authors:
Sanawar, Huma; Xiong, Yanghui ( 0000-0002-5009-547X ) ; Alam, Aftab ( 0000-0001-6734-0251 ) ; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Hong, Pei-Ying ( 0000-0002-4474-6600 )
Abstract:
Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division; Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Red Sea Research Center (RSRC); Desert Agriculture Initiative
Citation:
Sanawar H, Xiong Y, Alam A, Croué J-P, Hong P-Y (2017) Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters. Aquaculture 480: 94–102. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.08.014.
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Aquaculture
Issue Date:
15-Aug-2017
DOI:
10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.08.014
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0044-8486
Sponsors:
The research reported in this publication was supported by CCF funding FCC/1/1971-15-01 from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) awarded to P.-Y Hong.
Additional Links:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848617301072
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC); Environmental Science and Engineering Program; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC); Desert Agriculture Initiative; Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSanawar, Humaen
dc.contributor.authorXiong, Yanghuien
dc.contributor.authorAlam, Aftaben
dc.contributor.authorCroue, Jean-Philippeen
dc.contributor.authorHong, Pei-Yingen
dc.date.accessioned2017-10-03T12:49:37Z-
dc.date.available2017-10-03T12:49:37Z-
dc.date.issued2017-08-15en
dc.identifier.citationSanawar H, Xiong Y, Alam A, Croué J-P, Hong P-Y (2017) Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters. Aquaculture 480: 94–102. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.08.014.en
dc.identifier.issn0044-8486en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.08.014en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625738-
dc.description.abstractDisinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe research reported in this publication was supported by CCF funding FCC/1/1971-15-01 from King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) awarded to P.-Y Hong.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0044848617301072en
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Aquaculture. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Aquaculture, [, , (2017-08-15)] DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.08.014 . © 2017. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
dc.subjectAntibiotic-resistant bacteriaen
dc.subjectAntibiotic resistance genesen
dc.subjectDisinfection byproductsen
dc.subjectQuantitative microbial risk assessmenten
dc.titleChlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture watersen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentEnvironmental Science and Engineering Programen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.contributor.departmentDesert Agriculture Initiativeen
dc.identifier.journalAquacultureen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionEdenworks Inc., Brooklyn 11206, NY, USAen
dc.contributor.institutionCurtin University, Water Quality Research Center, Department of Chemistry, Kent Street, Bentley, Perth, Australiaen
kaust.authorSanawar, Humaen
kaust.authorXiong, Yanghuien
kaust.authorAlam, Aftaben
kaust.authorCroue, Jean-Philippeen
kaust.authorHong, Pei-Yingen
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