Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/625134
Title:
Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry
Authors:
Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zongping; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Ye; Berger, Reinhard; Narita, Akimitsu; Barin, Gabriela Borin; Ruffieux, Pascal; Fasel, Roman; Feng, Xinliang; Räder, Hans Joachim; Müllen, Klaus
Abstract:
We present a mass spectrometric approach to monitor and characterize the intermediates of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) formation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on top of Au(111) surfaces. Information regarding the repeating units, lengths, and termini can be obtained directly from the surface sample by a modified matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method. The mass spectrometric results reveal ample oxidative side reactions under CVD conditions which can, however, be diminished drastically by introduction of protective H2 gas at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, addition of hydrogen extends the lengths of the oligophenylenes and thus the final GNRs. Moreover, the prematurely formed cyclodehydrogenation products during the oligomer growth can be assigned by the mass spectrometric method. The obtained mechanistic insights provide valuable information for optimizing and upscaling the bottom-up fabrication of GNRs. Given the important role of GNRs as semiconductors, the mass spectrometric characterization provides a readily available tool to improve and characterize their structural perfection.
KAUST Department:
Analytical Chemistry Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Citation:
Zhang W, Chen Z, Yang B, Wang X-Y, Berger R, et al. (2017) Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135.
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Journal:
Analytical Chemistry
Issue Date:
14-Jun-2017
DOI:
10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0003-2700; 1520-6882
Sponsors:
This work was supported by the European Research Council grant on NANOGRAPH, Graphene Flagship (No. CNECT-ICT-604391), European Union Projects UPGRADE and MoQuaS (contract N.610449), the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research BRC Program. Xiao-Ye Wang is grateful for the fellowship from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
Additional Links:
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135
Appears in Collections:
Articles

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Wenen
dc.contributor.authorChen, Zongpingen
dc.contributor.authorYang, Boen
dc.contributor.authorWang, Xiao-Yeen
dc.contributor.authorBerger, Reinharden
dc.contributor.authorNarita, Akimitsuen
dc.contributor.authorBarin, Gabriela Borinen
dc.contributor.authorRuffieux, Pascalen
dc.contributor.authorFasel, Romanen
dc.contributor.authorFeng, Xinliangen
dc.contributor.authorRäder, Hans Joachimen
dc.contributor.authorMüllen, Klausen
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-22T13:08:36Z-
dc.date.available2017-06-22T13:08:36Z-
dc.date.issued2017-06-14en
dc.identifier.citationZhang W, Chen Z, Yang B, Wang X-Y, Berger R, et al. (2017) Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135.en
dc.identifier.issn0003-2700en
dc.identifier.issn1520-6882en
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625134-
dc.description.abstractWe present a mass spectrometric approach to monitor and characterize the intermediates of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) formation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on top of Au(111) surfaces. Information regarding the repeating units, lengths, and termini can be obtained directly from the surface sample by a modified matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method. The mass spectrometric results reveal ample oxidative side reactions under CVD conditions which can, however, be diminished drastically by introduction of protective H2 gas at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, addition of hydrogen extends the lengths of the oligophenylenes and thus the final GNRs. Moreover, the prematurely formed cyclodehydrogenation products during the oligomer growth can be assigned by the mass spectrometric method. The obtained mechanistic insights provide valuable information for optimizing and upscaling the bottom-up fabrication of GNRs. Given the important role of GNRs as semiconductors, the mass spectrometric characterization provides a readily available tool to improve and characterize their structural perfection.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by the European Research Council grant on NANOGRAPH, Graphene Flagship (No. CNECT-ICT-604391), European Union Projects UPGRADE and MoQuaS (contract N.610449), the Swiss National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research BRC Program. Xiao-Ye Wang is grateful for the fellowship from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.en
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)en
dc.relation.urlhttp://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135en
dc.rightsThis document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Analytical Chemistry, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01135.en
dc.subjectMALDI mass spectrometryen
dc.subjecton-surface analysisen
dc.subjectgraphene nanoribbonen
dc.subjectoligophenylenesen
dc.subjectchemical vapor depositionen
dc.subjectpremature cyclodehydrogenationen
dc.titleMonitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometryen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentAnalytical Chemistry Core Lab, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Kingdom of Saudi Arabiaen
dc.identifier.journalAnalytical Chemistryen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionMax Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128, Mainz, Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionCenter for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfaed) & Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Technische Universität Dresden, Mommsenstrasse 4, 01062 Dresden, Germanyen
dc.contributor.institutionEmpa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerlanden
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerlanden
kaust.authorZhang, Wenen
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