Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/625027
Title:
Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian
Authors:
Klein, Shannon G.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Nitschke, Matthew R.; Goyen, Samantha; Welsh, David T.; Suggett, David J.; Carroll, Anthony R.
Abstract:
Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O and assimilate CO and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO-stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO conditions where increased net O production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. polyps, and perhaps also other noncalcifying cnidarian hosts, to the ubiquitous effects of ocean acidification. Importantly we highlight that symbiotic, noncalcifying cnidarians may be particularly advantaged in productive coastal waters that are subject to simultaneous hypoxia and acidification.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Klein SG, Pitt KA, Nitschke MR, Goyen S, Welsh DT, et al. (2017) Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian. Global Change Biology. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13718.
Publisher:
Wiley-Blackwell
Journal:
Global Change Biology
Issue Date:
8-Apr-2017
DOI:
10.1111/gcb.13718
Type:
Article
ISSN:
1354-1013
Sponsors:
Funding for this study was provided by Griffith University and an Australian Post-Graduate Award to S.G.K. The contribution of D.J.S. and M.R.N. to this work was supported through an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant DP160100271. We thank W. Bennett, F. Leusch and D. Tonzing for technical assistance and J. Arthur and J. Hay for statistical advice. We also thank A. Reno and K. Wilson from Underwater World, Sunshine Coast, Australia, for cultures of Cassiopea sp. polyps.
Additional Links:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13718/full
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorKlein, Shannon G.en
dc.contributor.authorPitt, Kylie A.en
dc.contributor.authorNitschke, Matthew R.en
dc.contributor.authorGoyen, Samanthaen
dc.contributor.authorWelsh, David T.en
dc.contributor.authorSuggett, David J.en
dc.contributor.authorCarroll, Anthony R.en
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-14T12:17:35Z-
dc.date.available2017-06-14T12:17:35Z-
dc.date.issued2017-04-08en
dc.identifier.citationKlein SG, Pitt KA, Nitschke MR, Goyen S, Welsh DT, et al. (2017) Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian. Global Change Biology. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13718.en
dc.identifier.issn1354-1013en
dc.identifier.doi10.1111/gcb.13718en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/625027-
dc.description.abstractAnthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O and assimilate CO and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO-stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO conditions where increased net O production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. polyps, and perhaps also other noncalcifying cnidarian hosts, to the ubiquitous effects of ocean acidification. Importantly we highlight that symbiotic, noncalcifying cnidarians may be particularly advantaged in productive coastal waters that are subject to simultaneous hypoxia and acidification.en
dc.description.sponsorshipFunding for this study was provided by Griffith University and an Australian Post-Graduate Award to S.G.K. The contribution of D.J.S. and M.R.N. to this work was supported through an Australian Research Council (ARC) Discovery Grant DP160100271. We thank W. Bennett, F. Leusch and D. Tonzing for technical assistance and J. Arthur and J. Hay for statistical advice. We also thank A. Reno and K. Wilson from Underwater World, Sunshine Coast, Australia, for cultures of Cassiopea sp. polyps.en
dc.publisherWiley-Blackwellen
dc.relation.urlhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.13718/fullen
dc.subjectAsexual reproductionen
dc.subjectCassiopea sp.en
dc.subjectElevated pCO2en
dc.subjectJellyfishen
dc.subjectLow DOen
dc.subjectLow pHen
dc.subjectPhotosynthesisen
dc.subjectSymbiontsen
dc.subjectZooxanthellaeen
dc.titleSymbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarianen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalGlobal Change Biologyen
dc.contributor.institutionAustralian Rivers Institute - Coasts and Estuaries; Griffith School of Environment; Griffith University; Gold Coast Qld Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionClimate Change Cluster (C3); University of Technology Sydney; Sydney NSW Australiaen
dc.contributor.institutionEnvironmental Futures Research Institute; Griffith School of Environment; Griffith University; Gold Coast Qld Australiaen
kaust.authorKlein, Shannon G.en
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