Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/624038
Title:
Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?
Authors:
Mies, Miguel; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.; Radecker, Nils; Voolstra, Christian R. ( 0000-0003-4555-3795 )
Abstract:
Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about the associations during larval development of animal hosts, although four different metazoan phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Acoelomorpha, and Mollusca) produce larvae associated with Symbiodinium. These phyla represent considerable diversities in larval forms, manner of symbiont acquisition, and requirements on the presence of symbionts for successful metamorphosis. Importantly, the different requirements are conveyed by specific symbiont types that are selected by the host animal larvae. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether these associations during larval stages already represent mutualistic interactions, as evident from the relationship of Symbiodinium with their adult animal hosts. For instance, molecular studies suggest that the host larval transcriptome is nearly unaltered after symbiont acquisition. Even so, a symbiosis-specific gene has been identified in Symbiodinium that is expressed in larval host stages, and similar genes are currently being described for host organisms. However, some reports suggest that the metabolic exchange between host larvae and Symbiodinium may not cover the energetic requirements of the host. Here, we review current studies to summarize what is known about the association between metazoan larvae and Symbiodinium. In particular, our aim was to gather in how far the mutualistic relationship present between adult animals hosts and Symbiodinium is already laid out at the time of symbiont acquisition by host larvae. We conclude that the mutualistic relationship between animal hosts and algal symbionts in many cases is not set up during larval development. Furthermore, symbiont identity may influence whether a mutualism can be established during host larval stages.
KAUST Department:
Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Mies M, Sumida PYG, Rädecker N, Voolstra CR (2017) Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start? Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00056.
Publisher:
Frontiers Media SA
Journal:
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Issue Date:
30-May-2017
DOI:
10.3389/fevo.2017.00056
Type:
Article
ISSN:
2296-701X
Sponsors:
We would like to thank Arthur Güth and Linda Waters for their important inputs that greatly contributed to the production of this manuscript, and also Anna Roik for the acroporid coral photograph and Juliana Ali for the illustrations.
Additional Links:
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fevo.2017.00056/full
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC); Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Division

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorMies, Miguelen
dc.contributor.authorSumida, Paulo Y. G.en
dc.contributor.authorRadecker, Nilsen
dc.contributor.authorVoolstra, Christian R.en
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-05T06:02:24Z-
dc.date.available2017-06-05T06:02:24Z-
dc.date.issued2017-05-30en
dc.identifier.citationMies M, Sumida PYG, Rädecker N, Voolstra CR (2017) Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start? Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 5. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00056.en
dc.identifier.issn2296-701Xen
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fevo.2017.00056en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/624038-
dc.description.abstractSymbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about the associations during larval development of animal hosts, although four different metazoan phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Acoelomorpha, and Mollusca) produce larvae associated with Symbiodinium. These phyla represent considerable diversities in larval forms, manner of symbiont acquisition, and requirements on the presence of symbionts for successful metamorphosis. Importantly, the different requirements are conveyed by specific symbiont types that are selected by the host animal larvae. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether these associations during larval stages already represent mutualistic interactions, as evident from the relationship of Symbiodinium with their adult animal hosts. For instance, molecular studies suggest that the host larval transcriptome is nearly unaltered after symbiont acquisition. Even so, a symbiosis-specific gene has been identified in Symbiodinium that is expressed in larval host stages, and similar genes are currently being described for host organisms. However, some reports suggest that the metabolic exchange between host larvae and Symbiodinium may not cover the energetic requirements of the host. Here, we review current studies to summarize what is known about the association between metazoan larvae and Symbiodinium. In particular, our aim was to gather in how far the mutualistic relationship present between adult animals hosts and Symbiodinium is already laid out at the time of symbiont acquisition by host larvae. We conclude that the mutualistic relationship between animal hosts and algal symbionts in many cases is not set up during larval development. Furthermore, symbiont identity may influence whether a mutualism can be established during host larval stages.en
dc.description.sponsorshipWe would like to thank Arthur Güth and Linda Waters for their important inputs that greatly contributed to the production of this manuscript, and also Anna Roik for the acroporid coral photograph and Juliana Ali for the illustrations.en
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SAen
dc.relation.urlhttp://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fevo.2017.00056/fullen
dc.rightsThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.titleMarine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentBiological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE) Divisionen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalFrontiers in Ecology and Evolutionen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionOceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazilen
kaust.authorRadecker, Nilsen
kaust.authorVoolstra, Christian R.en
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