Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/622618
Title:
Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts
Authors:
Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, Chao; Margalith, T.; Ng, Tien Khee ( 0000-0002-1480-6975 ) ; Denbaars, S. P.; Ooi, Boon S. ( 0000-0001-9606-5578 ) ; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.
Abstract:
We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm
KAUST Department:
Photonics Laboratory
Citation:
Leonard JT, Young EC, Yonkee BP, Cohen DA, Shen C, et al. (2016) Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts. Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XI. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2206211.
Publisher:
SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng
Journal:
Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XI
Conference/Event name:
Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XI
Issue Date:
1-Mar-2016
DOI:
10.1117/12.2206211
Type:
Conference Paper
Sponsors:
The authors would like to thank Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation for providing high-quality free-standing mplane GaN substrates. This work was funded in part by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) Technology Innovations Center (TIC) program, and the Solid State Lighting and Energy Electronics Center (SSLEEC) at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Partial funding for this work came from Prof. Boon S. Ooi at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), through his participation in the KACST-TIC program. A portion of this work was done in the UCSB nanofabrication facility, with support from the NSF NNIN network (ECS- 03357650), the UCSB Materials Research Laboratory (MRL), which is supported by the NSF MRSEC program (DMR- 1121053), and the California NanoSystem Institute’s (CNSIs) Center for Scientific Computing at UCSB.
Additional Links:
http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=2498876
Appears in Collections:
Conference Papers; Photonics Laboratory

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorLeonard, J. T.en
dc.contributor.authorYoung, E. C.en
dc.contributor.authorYonkee, B. P.en
dc.contributor.authorCohen, D. A.en
dc.contributor.authorShen, Chaoen
dc.contributor.authorMargalith, T.en
dc.contributor.authorNg, Tien Kheeen
dc.contributor.authorDenbaars, S. P.en
dc.contributor.authorOoi, Boon S.en
dc.contributor.authorSpeck, J. S.en
dc.contributor.authorNakamura, S.en
dc.date.accessioned2017-01-02T13:44:59Z-
dc.date.available2017-01-02T13:44:59Z-
dc.date.issued2016-03-01en
dc.identifier.citationLeonard JT, Young EC, Yonkee BP, Cohen DA, Shen C, et al. (2016) Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts. Gallium Nitride Materials and Devices XI. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2206211.en
dc.identifier.doi10.1117/12.2206211en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/622618-
dc.description.abstractWe report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cmen
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors would like to thank Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation for providing high-quality free-standing mplane GaN substrates. This work was funded in part by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) Technology Innovations Center (TIC) program, and the Solid State Lighting and Energy Electronics Center (SSLEEC) at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Partial funding for this work came from Prof. Boon S. Ooi at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), through his participation in the KACST-TIC program. A portion of this work was done in the UCSB nanofabrication facility, with support from the NSF NNIN network (ECS- 03357650), the UCSB Materials Research Laboratory (MRL), which is supported by the NSF MRSEC program (DMR- 1121053), and the California NanoSystem Institute’s (CNSIs) Center for Scientific Computing at UCSB.en
dc.publisherSPIE-Intl Soc Optical Engen
dc.relation.urlhttp://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=2498876en
dc.rightsCopyright 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.en
dc.subjectTunnel-junctionen
dc.subjectvertical-cavity surface-emitting laseren
dc.subjectflip-chipen
dc.subjectintracavity contacten
dc.subjectVCSELen
dc.subjectIII-nitridesen
dc.subjectvioleten
dc.subjectLasersen
dc.titleComparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contactsen
dc.typeConference Paperen
dc.contributor.departmentPhotonics Laboratoryen
dc.identifier.journalGallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIen
dc.conference.date2016-02-15 to 2016-02-18en
dc.conference.nameGallium Nitride Materials and Devices XIen
dc.conference.locationSan Francisco, CA, USAen
dc.eprint.versionPublisher's Version/PDFen
dc.contributor.institutionMaterials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106, United Statesen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa arbara, CA, 93106, United Statesen
kaust.authorShen, Chaoen
kaust.authorNg, Tien Kheeen
kaust.authorOoi, Boon S.en
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