The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/621890
Title:
The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus
Authors:
Solberg, Ingrid; Kaartvedt, Stein ( 0000-0002-8793-2948 )
Abstract:
We addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat’ swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼ 65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾ 0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼ 50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 hour prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼ 20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a “rise and sink” pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 hour before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and negative buoyancy.
KAUST Department:
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)
Citation:
Solberg I, Kaartvedt S (2016) The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus. Progress in Oceanography. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.003.
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Progress in Oceanography
Issue Date:
27-Nov-2016
DOI:
10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.003
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0079-6611
Sponsors:
Thor A. Klevjer and Anders Røstad were instrumental in conducting the acoustic studies. We thank Rita Amundsen and the crew of RV Trygve Braarud for valuable technical assistance in the field, and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences for access to data on light. We are also thankful for the constructive comments from two anonymous reviewers that improved the manuscript. This study was funded by a grant from The Research Council of Norway and by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.
Additional Links:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661116301197
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Red Sea Research Center (RSRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSolberg, Ingriden
dc.contributor.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-27T08:37:28Z-
dc.date.available2016-11-27T08:37:28Z-
dc.date.issued2016-11-27en
dc.identifier.citationSolberg I, Kaartvedt S (2016) The diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattus. Progress in Oceanography. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.003.en
dc.identifier.issn0079-6611en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.003en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/621890-
dc.description.abstractWe addressed the behavioral patterns and DVM dynamics of sprat overwintering in a 150 m Norwegian fjord with increasing hypoxia by depth. An upward-facing echosounder deployed at the bottom and cabled to shore provided 4 months of continuous acoustic data. This enabled detailed studies of individual behavior, specifically allowing assessment of individual vertical migrations at dusk and dawn in relation to light, analysis of so-called rise-and-sink swimming, and investigation of the sprat’ swimming activity and behavior in severely hypoxic waters. Field campaigns supplemented the acoustic studies. The acoustic records showed that the main habitat for sprat was the upper ∼ 65 m where oxygen concentrations were ⩾ 0.7 mL O2 L-1. The sprat schooled at ∼ 50 m during daytime and initiated an upward migration about 1 hour prior to sunset. While some sprat migrated to surface waters, other individuals interrupted the ascent when at ∼20-30 m, and returned to deeper waters ∼ 20-50 min after sunset. Sprat at depth was on average larger, yet individuals made excursions to- and from upper layers. Sprat were swimming in a “rise and sink” pattern at depth, likely related to negative buoyancy. Short-term dives into waters with less than 0.45 mL O2 L-1 were interpreted as feeding forays for abundant overwintering Calanus spp. The deep group of sprat initiated a dawn ascent less than 1 hour before sunrise, ending at 20-30 m where they formed schools. They subsequently returned to deeper waters about ∼20 min prior to sunrise. Measurements of surface light intensities indicated that the sprat experienced lower light levels in upper waters at dawn than at dusk. The vertical swimming speed varied significantly between the behavioral tasks. The mixed DVM patterns and dynamic nocturnal behavior of sprat persisted throughout winter, likely shaped by individual strategies involving optimized feeding and predator avoidance, as well as relating to temperature, hypoxia and negative buoyancy.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThor A. Klevjer and Anders Røstad were instrumental in conducting the acoustic studies. We thank Rita Amundsen and the crew of RV Trygve Braarud for valuable technical assistance in the field, and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences for access to data on light. We are also thankful for the constructive comments from two anonymous reviewers that improved the manuscript. This study was funded by a grant from The Research Council of Norway and by King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079661116301197en
dc.rightsNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Progress in Oceanography. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Progress in Oceanography, 27 November 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2016.11.003en
dc.subjectspraten
dc.subjectDVMen
dc.subjectdusk and dawnen
dc.subjecthypoxiaen
dc.subjectdiving behavioren
dc.subjectnocturnal behavioren
dc.subjectswimming speeden
dc.titleThe diel vertical migration patterns and individual swimming behavior of overwintering sprat Sprattus sprattusen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentRed Sea Research Center (RSRC)en
dc.identifier.journalProgress in Oceanographyen
dc.eprint.versionPost-printen
dc.contributor.institutionNorwegian Institute for Nature Research, PO Box 5685 Sluppen, 7485 Trondheim, Norwayen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway, PO Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norwayen
kaust.authorSolberg, Ingriden
kaust.authorKaartvedt, Steinen
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