Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects

Handle URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10754/621802
Title:
Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects
Authors:
Sarp, S.; Li, Z.; Saththasivam, J.
Abstract:
Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has attracted worldwide attention with respect to its salinity gradient energy production potential, and low energy desalination applications. PRO processes, which use Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) brine as draw solutions, have a higher potential of being applied to any new, and existing membrane based seawater desalination systems, as an energy production and/or conservation process. Hydraulic pressure is applied on a high salinity draw solution, and the hydraulic pressure of the high salinity draw solution can be kept relatively constant during operation, even though the volumetric flow rate is to be increased. Therefore, the draw side of the PRO process can be considered near-isobaric, in most cases. The harvested Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the volumetric expansion can explain this near-isobaric behavior of the draw side in the PRO process. Thus, PRO can be used to multiply the internal energy of the draw solution with respect to the ratio of the permeated water flux. Even though PRO has very high theoretical potential for energy production and/or recovery, there are several shortcomings, which should be answered before the realization of the scale up applications, such as; thermodynamic process optimization, high power density membranes, and high efficiency hydraulic pressure conversion and recovery systems. This review gives detailed information about the PRO process including; (1) theoretical background, (2) membranes for PRO, (3) experimental and large scale applications, and (4) economic feasibility of PRO applications.
KAUST Department:
Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)
Citation:
Sarp S, Li Z, Saththasivam J (2016) Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects. Desalination 389: 2–14. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2015.12.008.
Publisher:
Elsevier BV
Journal:
Desalination
Issue Date:
16-Jan-2016
DOI:
10.1016/j.desal.2015.12.008
Type:
Article
ISSN:
0011-9164
Appears in Collections:
Articles; Water Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSarp, S.en
dc.contributor.authorLi, Z.en
dc.contributor.authorSaththasivam, J.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-03T13:25:17Z-
dc.date.available2016-11-03T13:25:17Z-
dc.date.issued2016-01-16en
dc.identifier.citationSarp S, Li Z, Saththasivam J (2016) Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospects. Desalination 389: 2–14. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2015.12.008.en
dc.identifier.issn0011-9164en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.desal.2015.12.008en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10754/621802-
dc.description.abstractPressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) has attracted worldwide attention with respect to its salinity gradient energy production potential, and low energy desalination applications. PRO processes, which use Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) brine as draw solutions, have a higher potential of being applied to any new, and existing membrane based seawater desalination systems, as an energy production and/or conservation process. Hydraulic pressure is applied on a high salinity draw solution, and the hydraulic pressure of the high salinity draw solution can be kept relatively constant during operation, even though the volumetric flow rate is to be increased. Therefore, the draw side of the PRO process can be considered near-isobaric, in most cases. The harvested Gibbs free energy of mixing, and the volumetric expansion can explain this near-isobaric behavior of the draw side in the PRO process. Thus, PRO can be used to multiply the internal energy of the draw solution with respect to the ratio of the permeated water flux. Even though PRO has very high theoretical potential for energy production and/or recovery, there are several shortcomings, which should be answered before the realization of the scale up applications, such as; thermodynamic process optimization, high power density membranes, and high efficiency hydraulic pressure conversion and recovery systems. This review gives detailed information about the PRO process including; (1) theoretical background, (2) membranes for PRO, (3) experimental and large scale applications, and (4) economic feasibility of PRO applications.en
dc.publisherElsevier BVen
dc.subjectPressure Retarded Osmosisen
dc.subjectSalinity gradient processesen
dc.subjectPRO membranesen
dc.subjectProcess optimization for PROen
dc.subjectSWRO–PRO hybrid processen
dc.subjectEconomic feasibility of PROen
dc.titlePressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO): Past experiences, current developments, and future prospectsen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentWater Desalination and Reuse Research Center (WDRC)en
dc.identifier.journalDesalinationen
dc.contributor.institutionQatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qataren
dc.contributor.institutionBelfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, United Statesen
kaust.authorLi, Z.en
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